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GLOSSARY of concepts and terminology      

Alphabetical glossary of the concepts/terms I've created, redefined or deem important to my composition, in short paragraph format.
For a more in-depth exploration of these concepts, see the New Style page and the writings there.



Ideas Original
the New Style (NS)
theoretical possibilities
100 problems of music
developing variation
autobiographical pieces


100 problems of music
active panning
acts of description (NS)
additive pattern
aesthetic benchmarking
aggregate collage
AIT, audio-in-time
ambiguity theory, incoherence theory
anticipatory creation
appropriation objects
approximate music
approximation, anti-approximation
archetypal numbers
artist reaction
artist strategies
artist worldview
artistic health/wellbeing
audio benchmarks
audio-size realism
autistic language
autobiographical pieces
axiom - swell
axiom: ASIL
axiom: “lull and forte shock”
axiom: notch
axiom: shimmer
axiomatic __
barriers, philosophical
barriers/extremes, musical
beauty of life aesthetic
Belle Epoque
bend language
blinding genius
BOK, ‘body of knowledge’ (NS)
breaking, in general
choice problem
chord progression zones
complex domain (NS)
complex objects (Salome)
complex system
complexity standards
compositional inertia
concept - levels of obviousness
conceptual counterpoint
creative philosophy
cross-pollination (NS)
death domain
deep generation concept (BOK)
defining objects (long-line)
dense phrase
descriptive philosophy
developing variation
development matrix
development session
device (musical material)
directionality (direction)
dissonant frame
diversified monochromaticism
domain “bleed” (NS)
domain blanket (NS, tone-edit)
dramatic conversion
DRT, directional rhythmic thesis
dry counterpoint
dummy file
duplicity (NS)
EFT, effect-function thesis
ensemble design
equal polyphony
explicit form
faux-anthological list
first man on earth’ thought experiment
"flavor” of totality, generalization (NS)
fleeting style
force-object dualism (NS)
freeform orientation
full commitment
full implication ‘exits’
full commitment - back-end restoration
gateway theory
general form
generalized I.O.
genius process/tasks
geo-historical location (NS)
gestalt (as goal)
Glorious Days
graphic profile
gratifying extensions (melody).
harmonic nature
harmonic referent
harmonic vocabulary, language
harmonic/chord scaffolding
higher solution
historic personal material
holistic analysis
holistic axiom
holistic form (NS)
holistic reification
human style
human universals
humor context
humor refraction
hypothetical innovations
I.O. as approach
I.O. hermeneutics
idea development/“point”
idea types
idea web
ideas original
identity pluralism
idiosyncratic process
imagination springboard
impossible objects
indefinite extension/fluency
independent standards/“toughest critic”
independently updatable module (HTML)
inevitability (as goal)
intellectual counterpoint
introverted transfiguration
invention matrix
involuntary emotion-space
IP, intellectual package (NS)
irreducible complexity
jewel chord
Joycean embeds
Joycean (music)
language exposition
language objectives, music
large-scale repetition patterns (LSRP)
leitmotivic class
leitmotivic juggling
levels of knowledge
linear domain (NS)
listening requirements
live sound
long line
loose subject (fugue)
mature style
melodic shift
mental space(s)
metaphoric distancing
metaphoric insistence
microcosmic music (Tatum)
MIDI collage (rhythmic dispenser process)
modular juxtaposition
moment theory
musical material
musicological set
nature language/style
negative absolutes
new analogues (orchestration)
normative person
NS inversion
object sessions (process)
objectification (reification/NS)
objective creation
objective genius
objective modifications - product
objective modifications
objective principles
open chord
optimistic ideals
orders of magnitude
organic domain, holistic field
ostentatious ideas
pan field (extreme/spatial panning)
partial reification
performance amplification
personal style (NS)
personal surrogates
pet philosophy
pet project
phrase relay
phrase rightness
placeholding theory
planetary/universal death
plot frames
plot points
plot sharpness, “human emotion”
PMF, programmatic micro-form
PMF-EFT “universal grammar”
poetic conversion
poverty of directness
pre-NS pool
preparatory theory
problem context
programmatic analogue
programmatic description
programmatic ideas
programmatic scene
prompt-based open architecture (NS)
radicality spectrum
reality 1
real-time form (NS)
real-time process
real-world/real-life counterpoint
recalibration (reification)
recurring axiom
render, rendered
rendered NS
replacement (process)
resistance (NS)
retrospective meaning (Joyce)
retrospective moment (moment theory)
rhth “mirroring”
rhythmic agility
rhythmic looseness
rhythmic thesis dispenser
rhythmic thesis
semantic combinatorics
semantic content
shadow (NS, qualia)
shining character
sinewy timbre
singularity (NS/reification)
social processes/dynamics
spatial organization
specific aesthetic(s)
specific extension (idea web)
specific morphology
stock mods (description)
strange poetry
stratification (philosophy)
sub-ensemble (orchestration)
subject language
subjective genius
subjective subset (NS)
superimposition (NS)
supersession theory
symbolic representative (choice)
table of the elements
task-based composing
tension variant (SM)
theoretical possibilities
thought language
timeless melody
TL music
tonal solutions
tone-edit (NS)
total connectivity
total integration
tower, wedge
trailing hook
notch hook
traits of God (genius)
transfiguration ensembles
transfiguration, ‘Maj7’
transition language
turning point
unique timbre, singular timbre
universal genius
universal subject (NS)
variation orientation
variation tasks
vocal surrogate
weight (dynamics)
zero-truth (philosophy)

__-collage: A collage of many objects with similar properties or textures (“axioms”) - thus able to blend together and function as an overview of a particular physical property of music. The “shimmer collage”, for example, is an aggregation of particulate, free, sometimes improvised, “shimmers” often found at the intros and outros of music. It ends up with a delicate, jewel-like quality but because of the diverse instances/sources it draws from, it also has an inner diversity within the relative external homogeny. The composer defines the criteria for inclusion - often intangible, “loose” and personal (qualia) but could also be objectified using some means of quantification.
                see: “aggregate collage”, “diversified monochromaticism”

__ -surrogate: “standing as surrogate for __”
                Personal surrogate - when an auteur doesn’t represent himself directly in his work, but uses other actors in scenarios to indirectly dramatize a personal issue, situation or belief. This is especially useful when using the directly-autobiographical would lead to comparably weaker dramatization of the issue - for example, “difficulty defining and finding success in life” is better dramatized in Death of a Salesman, with the unique interplay between Willy and the imaginary Ben, than it would be by telling one’s own prosaic story of looking for a job. In Salesman, it is elevated to the tragic, and the entire drama is set in a climactic moment, days (then hours) from Willy’s suicide.
                Vocal surrogate - in melody (especially lead melody), when instrumental music needs to compensate for the absence of a vocalist (the most expressive instrument in music), it must find a surrogate instrument with a similarly high expressive quality - even the ability to closely mimic the features of a voice (inflection, formant, vibrato, etc.). This is especially important in the bend/human language.
                see: “bend language”, “expressive mods”, “stock mods”

__-select: “selecting for __” (in EQ, “high-select” was my own term for hi-pass)
                see: "axiom"

'100 problems' of Music: A key Ideas Original document listing all the aesthetic and practical problems of music and composing. 100 probs is like “musical existentialism” - “coping with the givens of music” (vs. “life” in the definition of existentialism). It wasn’t conceived at once - it was a reflection of the aesthetic problems I faced and observed while working on rendered music. Once I was aware of a problem, a feedback loop began - it led to higher standards, leading to awareness of more problems in practical composing, leading to additions to the 100 Problems’ list, leading to higher standards….A substantial amount of NS was conceived in light of this phenomenon.
                These “problems” can be more neutrally called “issues”. They range from philosophical and existential to very physical and tangible. The list originated from my subjective discontents but can be applied to all art and artists: art/artists can be defined (define themselves) by how they address these problems. Within 100 Problems, the more basic and profound the problem, the more important it is to NS. The ‘highest’ problems aren’t exclusively musical: 100 Probs, through extension, bleeds into many existential problems of life, reality and human limitation.
                The lengthy list of music’s aesthetic problems and impossibilities puts an oppressive burden on music’s creators, and for most of music’s traditional purposes, is unnecessary to the point of irrelevance - but this does not mean it isn’t true. Every artist, even if they choose to ignore these problems or deny them, is under their “umbrella”.
                The New Style is built in the shadow of 100 problems (composed in light of it), as were the events of late 2009-2010, where I struggled with the “impossibility” of creating a certain standard of music in my day-and-age. The most radical parts of NS - description and the theoretical possibilities that spring from it - are designed to break out of music’s limitations that were first listed in ‘100 Problems’. Historically, many genius works offer solutions to seemingly intractable problems, through new ideologies, processes, vocabularies, cultures, etc., that are either extensions or reactions against the current musical climate.
                see: "choice problem", "breaking", "compositional inertia", "tonal solutions", "anti-approximation"

active panning: Automated panning, where the position of instruments moves throughout the listener field during a composition - vs. the fixed array of the vast majority of music. L>R, R>L or more profoundly in binaural or surround. Also implied during live performance, where performers often move, at least slightly. In reification, this could symbolize relativity, for example.

acts of description (NS):
In NS, description is treated as a significant act with great power to comment on/augment the meaning of the music it is describing, based on the manner/character by which the music is described - the strategies used - whether, for example, it uses charts and graphs, poetry, only prose writing, pictures, the emotional valence of the writing and/or other media, etc. It is a reflection of the vast resources that can be mobilized in “description”, and how each method of description lends its own meaning. It is related to “general form”, where the approach to form is a comment on the music’s reification subject.
                Different ‘acts of description” in NS will take on the flavor/significance of musical events - like ‘infamous moments’, ‘turning points’ within music, etc. - for example, the act of deeming a reification of ‘human-psychological’ process a supersession of the universal scale would be a a radiant affirmation of humanity (that humans/the mind supersedes the universe because we perceive it).
                see “description”, “general form”

additive pattern: In creation of musical phrase, extending pattern by adding to it through time, especially referring to adding new and diverse patterns when compared to the previous one (vs. looping). This approach is freeing because it frees the composer (to a greater degree) to invent phrases and musical events that are less related to the previous one - esp. pattern-wise, and the theory is able to explain why such a large amount/wide range of phases sound coherent despite their diversity. When using development-based strategies, composers should be wary of staying too close to the initial material in creating subsequent phrases and long lines. A good composition blends the developmental, which implies unity, and the additive, which implies diversity.*
                *keep in mind these are normative recommendations, and may be irrelevant in a certain musical language. This is most related to classicism and song, where phrase is a primary concern.
                see: "development", "leitmotivic juggling", "the mature style"

aesthetic benchmarking: The strategy of using existing works as aesthetic models for a new task (or client). I initially used it when composing for specific clients. I would first go through many pieces of music composed by others, comparing their features and emotion (their “aesthetic” in general) to the client and task. This allowed me to pinpoint the qualities that I wanted my music to have - much ‘smarter’ and more efficient than composing many pieces from scratch and then seeing which one fits. Of course, any traits deemed desirable in the benchmark should be refracted through the composer’s personal aesthetic. In “imagination springboard”, I took this a step further and used the “+” sign to combine works - based on the observation that new works often seem like rough combinations of existing pieces (and can be described in those terms) - it is a rough heuristic, but good enough to steer the composer in the right direction. One can also use it to “foresee” future works, styles/aesthetics, languages, and is a great brainstorming technique.
                see: “imagination springboard” and “objective principles”, the aesthetic benchmark folder with notes on many works and artists

Aesthetics: A series of notes began in December 2008 - once I finished the second round of listing ideas under objective categories (melody, orchestration, rhythm, etc.), I wrote a page asking myself “but what do you want in your music?”. This page was called “The Aesthetic”. From then on, I took anything I perceived as related to the music I’d create and put it into the Aesthetic document. It functioned chronologically like a journal, dating each entry.
                Because influences can be vast, disparate and indirect, and because I was working on many projects at once, The Aesthetics series has become a collection of notes on music, philosophy, science, art, even the professional and financial world -- but all with the goal of clarifying or exploring anything that could contribute to my aesthetic. 10 volumes in, each has a “flavor” in retrospect - for example, Aesthetic 1 was essentially classicist, whereas Aesthetic 4 (February 2010) was aggressively polemic against traditional music, because I was grappling with the many aesthetic problems that coincided with my formation of the New Style.
                An entry can take any form - from a single line or quote, questions, to-do's, new concepts, process notes, analyses of other works, essays, additions to works in progress (New Style, autobio, “pet project”). It is where the New Style, mature style, nature style, ambiguity theory, etc. were primarily developed, before they were given their own documents.
                The document typically goes 50-100 pages before it moves on to its next volume. It is now on its 10th edition - ‘Aesthetic 10’.
                see: “Chronicles”, my daily journal began in 2007 that parallels Aesthetics.

aggregate collage: “Aggregate” meaning collection of objects, layered in a collage approach to create a unified texture, homogenous but with a certain tolerance for difference within that homogeny (the same concept represented in the “differentiated monochromaticism” idea). This is an extension of the diversity-within-relatedness that the tradition of developing variation values.
                There are many parameters that diversify the homogeneity:
                A composition with a holistic/pervasive “stab” axiom, for example, could use that staccato-sounding axiom (texture/pattern/behavior/articulation) to interpret (“appropriate”) diverse events (a half-cadence, a lull or climax, a cadenza, a riff, a theme, etc.), creating dramatic diversity within the “stab” idea. (see “appropriation objects”)
                An audio collage could draw from many sources with similar axioms - see the “shimmer collage” - the shimmer behavior could still be admissible despite different instruments/timbres, densities, dynamics, harmonies and melodic scales.
                NS searches for radical or interesting axioms/textures, then explores them thoroughly - and by not “watering them down” with other textures, it creates whole “worlds” of sound that are distinct from others.
                see: “axiom”, “diversified monochromaticism”, “tone-edit”, “appropriation objects”

AIT, audio-in-time: With the many different ways of describing and thinking about music, the many places you can find ideas about/for music, the myriad ways of creating music - notation, MIDI (in both GM and VST), prose writing, visual sketches, folders of objects, multitrack sessions, audio collage, etc. - I came up with a helpful calibration - to “focus everything on A-I-T” or audio-in-time, the ultimate and final form of music. When overwhelmed by these aforementioned sources of musical information, A-I-T focuses all processes, planning and MIDI and notation objects to the end result, which is sound that exists over time. (audio here means an audio format - usually .wav or .mp3).
                This is why you will sometimes read “audio object” in my writings - it distinguishes from music in other formats, esp. MIDI.
                see: "calibration", "description"

ambiguity theory, incoherence theory: Seen in many of the highest works in music and art, ambiguity is a fundamental creative strategy.
Defining ambiguity is difficult, of course, because something that disorients one person could be perfectly understandable to another. Defined subjectively, then, ambiguity represents disorder or complexity over a certain level considered “coherent” - elevated past “coherence” - for example, in Beethoven’s Diabelli Variations, he has to forsake the elementary coherence in the original subject to explore coherence at higher level, often involving use of ambiguity. He fights the “compositional inertia” of the original - which is coherent due to its simplicity, but shown to lack richness and interest when juxtaposed with the variations, where Beethoven wields ambiguity and proves that it can be coherent in his higher realm of composition.
                Thus the experience of ambiguity or “incoherence” can often be related to genius - the “shock of the new”, encountering a mind that produces unique and original, even odd, solutions to well known problems, and is also close relatives with “counterintuition” - thwarting and playing with audience expectations. Ambiguity theory is the idea that ambiguity and so-called deliberate “incoherence” that cause momentary disorientation in the listener are actually reflective of a higher tolerance in the artist; reflective of genius. Something ambiguous denies a simple answer, often resulting in many answers (hypotheses), expanding ways to hear and think about the music, and often giving the work a longer lifespan.
                It is manifested in everything from band-based music (esp. at high levels like free jazz, Hendrix) to classicism. For an explanation of ambiguity in classicism, see Leonard Bernstein’s exploration of ambiguity in Mozart’s 40th symphony in his Norton lectures. I initially juxtaposed it against my MIDI-composed beats, which were often “too orderly” and became boring to me.
                Process-wise, a composer can apply the approach to an existing object (see “appropriation objects”, “full object list” etc.). The “ambiguity theory” document is a list of places/instances where ambiguity can occur in a piece of music, and the audio benchmark folder of the same name contains snippets of ambiguity in practice.
                One of the primary reasons “collage” and its harmonic counterpart “veiling” are so important to NS is because of its strong potential to create ambiguity, to juxtapose coherences to create mystery and disorientation, even sublimity, at a higher level. Philosophically, it symbolizes mystery, the disorientation or paradox we experience before investigation and knowledge, and better yet, of all the mysteries we may never know: “there are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy." - Hamlet, Act 1
                see: "strange poetry", “counterintuition”, “genius”, “transfiguration”, “axiom”, “collage”, “veiling”, "poverty of directness"

anticipatory creation: A process-technique of conceptualizing a set of ideals (artistically or otherwise) that one isn’t able to “live up to” yet - then spends time “catching up” to them - sometimes an entire lifetime. This is an analogy to anticipatory learning, where you see a phenomenon or encounter information you don’t yet understand, but somehow that encounter drives you (both consciously and unconsciously) toward the attainment of understanding. Many of my most memorable moments have come from being completely shocked upon first discovering someone’s music or art - Beethoven’s Diabelli and Hammerklavier, Strauss’s Salome, Joyce’s Ulysses and Wake, most of Sondheim, and many visual artists. Probably the quickest way to learn is to encounter something so incomprehensible that you know you need to fundamentally evolve.
                My own Principles, 100 Problems and Genius documents function in that manner for my own projects, NS and autobiographical work - all three still state certain ideals that I’m not sure are possible for any human to live up to, and the “traits of God” list in ‘Genius’ was deliberately created to provoke me into greater New Style invention.
                Polemically, bad art lies to the audience about how great (and difficult) art can be, as a bad educational system obscures how difficult subjects really are, depriving students of both this anticipatory shock and the faith that they can eventually assimilate it into their mind.
                see: “genius”, “100 problems”, “blinding genius”

appropriation objects: Archetypal musical objects and forms to be refracted/interpreted by a new language, inspired by my observation of music/art history. An object can be anything - as pervasive and functional as “binary form”, a theme (musical material), a riff/ostinato, a cadence, a climax or a lull, a pattern, an beginning or end of a piece, a triptych, moments of a certain emotional valence (tragic, celebratory, warlike).
                Et cetera.
                When designing a new musical language, the quality (richness) of the language depends on its ability to do the things that existing music can do as well as they could (avoid comparative poverty) or do it differently/asymmetrical to the models, or deliberately reject the object/idea altogether (see “autistic languages”, deliberate and conspicuous absence).
                Either way, the purpose of these objects is to build bridges of reference back to existing musical grammar when introducing and “speaking” the new language - this is simply the reality of composing - how will the new language approach an “introduction” (how will it begin?) How will build tension? What will be the nature of its climax? (it must end…) How will it address all the parameters and “tasks” inherent in music? With a certain answer, the new composer can draw starkly ruthless differences from the music that surrounds him. Vivaldi’s “storm” vs. Beethoven’s vs. Strauss’s. Souza’s “war” vs. Penderecki’s. We see the difference in their language and worldview immediately. He can be witty, he can improve on or reform an existing model. Stravinsky, for example, had a primally new language, then used it to refract (see “refraction”) classical models (his neoclassic period) and allude to a myriad of musical styles (see Oedipus Rex). Dance forms are another category - the waltz of Strauss II vs. Ravel’s. Dances of African tribes vs. those of Louis XIV’s court vs. disco. The portraiture of cavemen vs. Gainsborough vs. Picasso, vs. Malevich’s negation of the entire tradition. Appropriation objects orient a new language.
                Appropriation objects  can also be used as a higher level development strategy. When developing musical material, one could begin with the typical small-scale transformations - inversion, retrograde, permutation - or they could first superimpose the material on larger pre-made objects - textures, axioms, phrase objects, counterintuitive or “shining character” objects, etc…..because ultimately, language and developing variation of the quality of classicism (Beethoven, Brahms), Salome and Wozzeck, serialism, minimalism, and sonorism (i.e. historically great languages), eventually arrive at this scale of construction. They “build cathedrals”.
                see: “refraction”, “objective modifications”, “counterintuition”, language objectives”, “autistic language”, “archetypal numbers”, “developing variation”, etc.                        also: “full object list”, “things all languages must have” documents.

approximate music: Simply put, how/why pieces of music that sounds similar don’t sound identical. This is especially relevant in genre, where very small modifications to musical parameter(s) can create a unique and even unforeseen piece. I came up with this concept while watching a ‘70s b-movie, when I was caught by surprise by a part of the soundtrack I envied. I had been composing in the same idiom for years, esp. in my beat-based material - so how had I not foreseen this specific piece of music? What made this piece different enough from all the related pieces, many of which used the same objects (orchestration ensembles and articulations, tempo, chords)? It eventually came down to another new term - Specific Morphologies (SM) - music at its most literal - the specific decisions and features - vs. the general aspects that were exactly alike. Micro-differentiation. It seemed as though they took an existing piece of music I’d heard and made an “approximate version” of it, tweaking the features just enough - a rhythmic accent here, a melodic twist there, or a different second chord in the same progression. It is a peculiar kind of affirmation of music’s ingenuity and protean variety, the opposite of “language design”, which focuses on groundbreaking and sweeping difference, yet, as I had to re-realize, every composer has to make decisions at every level, and once a language is established by the composer and differentiation at that higher level becomes a given, the focus inevitably turns to the micro-level - think of the myriad melodies of Mozart or Sondheim, who hint at infinite fluency and invention within their vernacular - could they compose forever?
                see. “specific morphologies”, “axiom”, "indefinite extension/fluency", “anti-approximation”, “choice problem”, “qualia”

approximation, anti-approximation: Though DRT objects (directional rhythmic thesis objects) are already entrenched in many areas of my process, they are “approximate” - they are combinations of benchmarks, patterns or sketches. The paradox eventually appeared - many “solutions” in music (historically famous melodies, a new chord, a perfect phrase, an iconic rhythm, a new timbre combination) couldn’t be approximated - the composer wouldn’t necessarily recognize it unless it were in its final form. Music’s quality is often only truly seen when all its aspects come together in its finished incarnation - thus “approximating” a musical idea could obscure its potential altogether. Think of the chasm that exists between the approximate “I love you” and the way the poet has to state it, or an archetypal face-shape vs. the artist’s choice of individual features. Thus a “stencil-type” process has a definite risk, as does description, that should be countered by this cautionary “anti-approximation” polemic.
                see: “appropriation objects”, “100 problems of music”, “DRT object”, “audio benchmarking”, “archetypal numbers”, etc.

archetypal numbers: A Broadway application of “appropriation objects”, the process-idea of using a list of purposes/occasions for songs in Broadway musicals and comparing it with a "book"/plot/subject - then  being able to “develop out” a Broadway musical, at least the skeleton of one. It would also help expose out (explore) all the possibilities for songs or musicalized event in advance, so the composer doesn’t miss an opportunity. It is a formalization of the archetypes that are already rote in the theatre community - the “I want” song, the “love song”, etc., and is consistent with the development and task-based orientation of Ideas Original.
                see: “appropriation objects”

artist reaction:
How an artist reacts to his circumstances and times - seen throughout music/art (and human) history, there are many ways a person can approach life and its particular set of circumstances it presents - when I began this investigation I was looking for “genius” reactions, which I found were more diverse than I thought. For example, a composer could steep himself in the technology of the day, innovate with it, become a symbol of it (Futurists, electronic music, rap) - or react strongly against it (transcendentalists, “back to Bach”, acoustic folk music etc.). “New Complexity” vs. minimalism - either way presents a strong aesthetic. The artist himself, when seen objectively, is a “specific morphology”,  spawned from combination of “artist parameters”.
                Explored in the “Artist Reaction” document.
                see: "artist worldview", "genius"

artist(ic) strategies:
A category of strategies for music benchmarked from visual art and “the arts” in general, which I have seen as having a more highly-developed conceptual and critical vernacular than music. Art’s criticism holds concepts and the thought of the artist more accountable to philosophy and worldly implications, and as NS is a conceptually driven project, modern art has become the most fruitful source of analogy (along with science). This resulted in the exploration called “artist strategies” in Ideas Original, designed to “feed” the conceptualization of objects in NS.
It is a study of conceptual thought, with the ultimate intent to generalize artist strategies past the original sources.
                see: “poetic conversion”, “task-based composing”, “artist reaction”, “general form”, “indirectness”.

artist worldview: A meta-analysis of how artists originate and develop the world(s) they present in their work and life, the parameters available and the philosophical issues in doing so. Great artists (and great art) introduces the audience to new worlds, new aesthetics/languages, and the artist themselves seem like originals: the world of each great artist is different, the completeness and vividness of their world is a measure of artistic strength, and  the autonomy versus other artists is a measure of uniqueness.
                Artist worldview also includes a comprehensive list of parameters an artist can utilize to differentiate themselves - no artist should allow a “default” answer for any of them - their identity, ideas and their artistic vision should ideally sweep through all of them, giving unique answers. They also choose which parameters to negate or reject. This combined with the music-based “language development” page. The artist’s personal identity and musical language contribute to each other continuously, hopefully reinforcing the force of vision the artist produces. Usually this is an organic process, but here it is formalized.
                see: “language objectives, music”, “genius”, “artist reaction”

artistic health/wellbeing: Analogous to psychological health - an artist may need to recalibrate his aesthetic health and sense of wellbeing - the way he thinks about his art and process. Most of the techniques employed in maintenance of general mental health apply - monitoring, controlling and changing inner dialogue, using art-based affirmations and calibrations, regulating expectations, adjusting timelines, redefining success and failure, re-evaluating influences, and learning how to tackle aesthetic problems. Much of “100 problems” can be diffused this way, allowing for continued artistic work under its tenets.
                see: “100 problems”

Much of modern art asserts an object or idea, presenting it to the audience without preparation. Music, on the other hand, because it exists through time, has traditionally been heard as a language-in-function, in-flux, where asserted objects are sublimated to the long-line and ultimately to the whole piece, and time-position, context and content are integrated. Yet, more modern approaches to music - sonorism textures, soundtrack cues, loop-based pop and rap, and much of NS’s “object” orientation assert musical objects and emphasize the single event over the pressure to quickly assimilate it and transition it into something different.
                There is a tension here - the risk of poverty when compared to functional languages: for example, while the “held chord” axiom in NS and other pieces may sound imposing and monolithic, the same chord may be more poignant when integrated in the “fleeting language” or in song, where it appears just long enough to create a twinge of that emotion, then is twisted into a harmonic sequence of other harmonies, creating more emotional complexity and ambiguity. The problem is solved with the “mature language” (that juxtaposes approaches), also with collage (that could, for instance, add harmonic, melodic and semantic content under/over the held chord).
                This is also one of the central pillars of the ‘classicism/transition language vs. modernism/nature style’ dichotomy, and in my process, the conflict between using predetermined/designed chord progressions vs. beginning with melody and organically harmonizing.
                see: "H700", "tower, wedge", "artist strategies", "language objectives"

audio benchmarks:
‘Benchmarking’ is a strategy that utilizes existing/past ideas as guides for solutions needed in similar or new contexts - the ‘audio benchmark’ collection is a series of labeled folders that contain audio-snippet examples of certain styles, phenomena, articulations, uses, timbres etc. There are folders for many functions - exhibitions of “ambiguity theory”, “axioms”, suggestions for “tonal solutions” and transitions, diverse/idiosyncratic/outstanding uses for certain instruments. The composer could use them literally and collage the examples into a scaffolding for a new work, or refer to them indirectly, as all composers have intangible memory of past music they’ve heard. They also function as ideals to “live up to” or surpass, because often their uniqueness or outrageousness was their reason for inclusion.
                In line with the I.O. anthological impulse, the ‘audio benchmark’ folders formalize the benchmark impulse - many were done in advance of any practical need. They were an extension of the Ideas Original documents, which listed music’s categories and possibilities - the physicality of the audio counterparts supplements the general ideas in the lists. Aesthetic benchmarking extends this into music’s languages and styles.
                see: “aesthetic benchmarking”, “appropriation objects”, “audio-in-time”, “axiom”

audio-size realism: In the real world, the amplitude/pressure of a sound wave can range from theoretical lack of sound to pressures that exceed the definition of “sound” and become pure pressure waves. Within this vast dynamic range, human ears can detect a smaller range, from the “
absolute threshold of hearing” (measured as 0 dB) to sounds that begin to damage the ears at 120 dB+. While still impressive (this dB ratio from quietest audible sound to loudest is one trillion), sound recording, speakers and headphone listening restrict this volume range. On an .mp3, one can “hear” someone speaking, a symphony, even the sound of  a volcano or an atomic blast, but the proportional power of these sounds isn’t maintained. Studio technology can lower the volume of the volcano and put someone speaking over it, or compress the range of the symphony until the lulls and climaxes are only a small range apart in volume. Rap producers can put a soft breakbeat over a sample of 120 symphonic players in forte. While this type of manipulation is an innovation in itself, it ruins the natural structure and hierarchy of sound.
                “Audio size realism” came out of the indignation that volume knobs, compression and limiting could make an acoustic trio, a heavy metal concert, a “symphony of 1000” and a nuclear blast approximately the same volume - “lying” to the listener. “Audio-size realism” is one of the “theoretical possibilities” of NS - to restore the real-world proportions of sound-amplitude, thus bestowing the composer with the power of true sound scale to work with. With this restoration, a single drummer is no longer able to regiment an entire symphony - sub-ensembles and tutti’s have real differentiation, trillions of sound plateaus become possible. With NS in description, a whisper and volcano can retain their respective magnitudes of sound but also remain autonomous and coexist in the listener’s mind. The sound object’s power to reify (and especially physically and definitively reify), is expanded tremendously, and is essential to symbolize many objects of different sizes, as exist in the world
                see: “NS”, “description”, “theoretical possibilities”, “orders of magnitude”, “sublimity”, “POTU(G)”, "100 Problems of Music"

autistic language:
A language that deliberately optimizes certain aspects of music at the expense of one or more aspects - more so at the complete exclusion/ignoring of one or more aspects. The metaphor of “autism” is used in reference to this restriction or lack of certain normative behaviors or features. Often the easiest way to construct a unique music language is by negating a traditional aspect of music at the outset, hypothesizing the result, and observing what other parameters would rise to prominence. Similarly, the strength (autonomy, uniqueness) of a language can often be traced to its negation of a key parameter of music, often one that is being emphasized in other music at the time.
                In the New Style, a subject for reification may spawn an autistic “reification language” due to the features of what is to be symbolized. For a simple example, symbolizing ‘math’ or ‘time’ in music may not require melody.
                see: “language objectives, music”, “axiom”, “ensemble design”, “subject language”.

axiom - swell: A “personal” axiom, based on alternation of volume change, resulting in a swelling and receding effect. It is most effective and radical when the swell is more exaggerated and intense than normal crescendo. The term is to be used in a sonorism context, where the “swell” is combined with a held chord or drone axiom, creating stillness and pulsation.
                see: "axiom", "sonorism", "H700"

axiom: I have willfully redefined “axiom” as a distinct way something acts - “distinct” as in “recognizable” and differentiatable from what surrounds it, thus “nameable”, “identifiable”. “Axiom” when used alone, refers to music - a recognizable way of acting and/or internal “texture”.
I created a list of axioms with examples. It establishes a cornerstone of uniqueness and even genius is music - creating a new or pervasive “internal makeup” of music, at the micro-level - past the traditional “homophonic” texture of the vast majority of music. “Holistic” axiom refers to a pervasive, consistent internal texture or way of acting, where “recurring” axiom refers to a texture, way of acting or gesture that is distributed throughout, but not pervasive. The investigation “axiomatic by object” showed that every musical object can take on axiomatic traits.
The New Style primarily relies on two axioms deemed the most profound: organic/“intellectual” counterpoint and collage.
It is heard in many famous pieces of music, esp. in instrumental music, classical and movie themes (motif and theme-based music).

Axiom is the ultimate point of differentiation, the analogue to stylistic variety in visual art.
                see: axiom types, "holistic axiom", "recurring axiom", "transfiguration"

axiom: ASIL: A prominent axiom, shorthand for “against silence” - when melodies/events/instruments occur against a general background of silence. It is defined as silence around event or phrase: “soloist ASIL” would be “soloist against silence”, etc.  It is a notable axiom because only a small percentage of music use silence in a meaningful way - silence is often drowned out by consistent accompaniments, sustained background chords, constant presence of drums. When silence plays a larger role, this often implies a better (less superficial) integration of phrase than “normal” homophonic ‘melody + accompaniment’ music. It also focuses listener attention. This is an example of an axiom as not only a more “unique” (novel) solution to music-making, but actually a better solution in a number of ways.
                see: "axiom"

axiom: “lull and forte shock”: The axiom-name for interplay between events of different dynamics, in modular/abrupt transition. The lull or silence typically comes first, then the opposite dynamic - a ‘forte’ - “shocks” the listener. Seen most notoriously in Haydn’s “surprise” symphony. Because of the asymmetry with the listener’s expectations, it can be categorized as “counterintuitive”, as defined below.
                see: "axiom", "counterintuition"

axiom: notch: “Notch” is a personal term for a general group of accent-based phenomena - hits, stabs, accents, off-accents/displacements, esp. when related to phrase articulation. A personally desirable trait in drumming - accenting phrase versus “plowing through it” by simply repeating a squarish pattern - the former is more integrated and organic, also more radical (vs. pattern-holding stereotype).
                see: "axiom", "axiomatic __"

axiom: shimmer: Particulate, free, sometimes improvised, “shimmers” often found at the intros and outros of music, but also including fast arpeggios and runs in some cases. It aims for a delicate, jewel-like quality. Usually seen in Rhodes, piano, vibes/glock/celesta, cymbal rides, etc., but can be realized on almost any instrument capable of staccato (flute, etc.) The shimmer can be augmented/complicated through echo and delay, smoothed through reverb.
                see: "axiom", "jewel chord"

axiomatic __: Axiomatic by aspect -  “axiom” is willfully redefined as a distinct way something acts - distinct as in “recognizable” and differentiatable from what surrounds it, thus “nameable”, “identifiable”. Not only has its central application, “axiom” (recognizable way of acting and/or internal “texture” of music) become a primary means of genius in music, it has prompted sub-investigations by musical parameter - “axiomatic chord progression”, “axiomatic rhythm”, “axiomatic bass”, “axiomatic drumming” etc. - “ability to be identified” (“axiomatic”)  has become a measure of ‘strength’ of the object or idea.
                see: "axiom", axiom types

barriers, philosophical: A philosophical concept/category, containing/dealing with the following:
                - the extremes of reality - the where a parameter of reality can’t be expanded any more in a particular direction
                - the limitations of reality - what cannot occur or exist (and whether this is real/true) - and ideas proven to be untrue (myth, mystery)
                - totalizing concepts and/or worldviews that use the vernacular of barriers - infinity, since the beginning of time, “all things” etc., “truth”
                                (and the conflicts between worldviews with incompatible claims about these kinds of real-world barriers)
                - generalization terminology - “all”, “none” etc.
                “Barrier theory” is a key concept in all of my projects - because my philosophy, art and aesthetics are all concerned with the malleability of the limitations of life and art. My philosophy is in part a polemic against the barriers of “real life” (death, single identity, truth, impossibility), and against those who create worldviews and philosophies predicated on barriers (religion, for example). Barrier theory is simultaneously an extension and response to “100 problems of music” - it extends “problems”, many of which are barriers to real life, but also empowers art to break the barriers of reality using tools native to art - metaphor, the creation, description and portrayal of alternate worlds, meta-reference. Art proves that reality is more malleable than a materialist would assume: The “humor context “ has power to devalue barriers, and “mind and imagination” have the ability to posit and explore the impossible, key powers in The New Style.
                Philosophical barrier theory is analogous to music’s barriers/extremes investigation. The musical version came first, then the concept was extended to life itself.
                see: “reality 1”, “BPC, “barriers/extremes, musical”, “100 Problems of Music”, "generalization", “ambiguity theory”, “humor context”

barriers/extremes, musical: An investigation at the beginning of 2008 in Ideas Original. Vowing to no longer be surprised or superseded by any outrageous features of music, I did an objective inventory of all music’s parameters and the extremes of each, ultimately arriving at barriers, where the parameter couldn’t be expanded any further. For example, a frequency at 20 kHz (the theoretical limit of human hearing) is both an extreme of “pitch” and “range” parameters (the “last” audible frequency) and a barrier, as anything beyond that belongs to the ‘ultrasonic’ - humanly inaudible.
                There are both low and high extremes and barriers - for example, for the “density” parameter : silence > soloist > counterpoint of infinite voices. Generalization came later (2011): adding “none” and “all” at each end of the spectrum for each parameter.
Modern music (after it broke from its own psychological stereotypes of appropriate vs. absurd) has colonized (explored) many of these extremes and barriers. The importance of this investigation is its (relatively) anthological and exhaustive nature with respect to the amount of parameters, creating a full vernacular of extremes and barriers, and eventually through description and “theoretical possibilities”, the expansion into a formal body of theory around the impossible - ideas that venture past physical possibility (see “NS”, “theoretical composition”). NS will use the language of extremes (“full spectrum”) frequently.
                In reification, extremes are used to represent similarly extreme aspects of the universe/world and life (etc.), and barriers are used to represent ideals, impossibilities, “beyond problem context” (etc.)
                see: “barriers (philosophy)”, “full spectrum”, “spectrum of radicality”, “theoretical composition”, “BPC” (etc.)

beauty of life aesthetic: A named personal aesthetic. After observing and/or admiring an emotional/ideological ‘climate’ in a certain amount of works, I see the need to formalize it by naming it and describing it. This is the most “normative” and “humanist” aesthetic, seen in many of the greatest historical music and art - affirming life, humanity and the world, highlighting and exalting the beautiful. This is not to imply escapism or ignorance of the negativity inherent in those same subjects, but more a function of artistic choice/focus - to beautify life in a profound sense, to insist that life can be “beautiful” in all senses of the word; in the humanist philosophical sense. In NS/autobiographical works, it can be seen in many Transfigured World ‘personal surrogates’ (“optimistic ideas”) and “Glorious Days”, and is juxtaposed against the death domain (though sometimes seen in it) and “decay/ugliness”.
                see: “Glorious Days” aesthetic, “optimistic ideals”, “personal surrogates”, “death domain”, etc.

Belle Epoque: A named personal aesthetic. As mentioned above, after observing and/or admiring an emotional/ideological ‘climate’ in a certain amount of works, I see the need to formalize it through naming and description. The “Belle Epoque” aesthetic is named for the implication of that pre-WWI fading era - as I see it, a nocturnal, gauzy, elegant, decadent time, and this is, by analogy, associated with subjective traits that seem to belong there - imagery, harmonies, words. For now, the exact inspirations and features won’t be divulged. The Belle aesthetic is juxtaposed against its summer/day counterpart, “Glorious Days”, especially in NS’s central “personal language”..
                see: “beauty of life” aesthetic, “Glorious Days” aesthetic, “death domain”, “autobiographical work”

bend language:Based very practically in the realities of MIDI composition, where the composer can add more or less “inflection” to a particular melody by using the “pitchbend” controller lane. Initially (very early), my compositions didn’t use bend, thus would always compare unfavorably with human-created music, especially vocals, but also guitar, bass, strings etc. - eventually I came to the point where the problem needed to be identified and named - birthing the “bend language”, where humanlike bend and inflection would be the central focus, even more exaggerated. It represents humanity, expression and gratification. I see it as a key of quality musicianship, and included it in my “default” features for my rendered music - the “stock modifications”. It can also be generalized into an axiom.
                “Bend” is diverse, manifested in: grace notes, portamento, vibrato, “wide” vibrato, scoops, falls, inflection, intonation.
                see: “stock modification”, “introverted transfiguration”, “vocal surrogate”, most terms related to orchestration and humanism, “axiom” TOP

“blinding” genius: Within the study of genius, this is a subjectively-defined criterion of genius (intangible), a subset of genius, a higher domain of the result of genius and its visionary quality. It refers to a vast leap forward in thought, as both a feature observed in retrospect and a goal - this was the objective directly preceding “theoretical composition”. While genius is NS’s central question (“what would be genius in music?”), if “genius” criterion seems to be satisfied in a particular area, “blinding genius” serves as additional motivation - “gateways” towards entire new modes of thought or disciplines fall into this category.
                see: “genius”, “NS”, “theoretical composition”, “gateway theory”, "anticipatory creation", "the anomaly", "objective genius"

BOK, ‘body of knowledge’: (NS) When we observe and think about a piece of art or music, we don’t arrive at the work with a blank slate, nor does it confront us with one - think of how much ideological/philosophical, critical, and historical information exist for each important work of art or music, and “deep-generation works” have even more - for example “an opera based on a play based on a novel based on a myth”…
Yet this knowledge is only implicit in the work, often not visible or audible.
                When conceptualizing NS, especially the vast research and development process required for each reification (as ‘due diligence’), a problem emerged - what about a “minimalist” reification? (which most of the H700 sketches were at that point). I would really amass such a huge amount of information just to end up with a stoic, almost Platonically-simple form as the final reification result? When compared with forms like operas, collages, oratorios, movies and novels, which were all buzzing with semantic potential? Either I couldn’t use minimalism at all, or I’d need a way to include the information, but separate from the object itself.
                In NS, the intellectual package already exists around - but apart from - the initial reification: it includes variations on the initial reification (“criticizing” the object from the POV of different languages/ideologies) and an exposition of the initial reification’s language (the “language exposition”, appropriating objects from other language to formalize the grammar). I decided that through another such feature “behind” or “near” the reification object - what I call its ‘body of knowledge’ - the  reification wouldn’t have to present all its information in its artistic appearance, but, like many other works of art, it would be surrounded by the information that precipitated it. In NS process, BOK can also be extrapolated in retrospect from a reif, esp. if it’s an ‘objective’ universal-leaning object with multiple possible meanings (see “multiplicity”).
                Thus the audience can see the object itself (which is now free to be simple or complex, semantically rich or blank), and then see its body of knowledge, a supplementary component.
                see: “NS”, “theoretical possibilities”, “deep generation concept (BOK)”,  “IP”, “language exposition”, “variation set”, "semantic content"

BPC: A philosophical “pet issue”, an acronym for “beyond problem context”. Based on a model of the world as a series of conflicting/dialectical forces and ‘problems’, and observing that human life has been largely dedicated to solving problems both at the historical and daily level. This view is extended into the future in the “human universals” analysis (that human universals will remain central to our lives far into the future, though technology will change). With the physical domain of our universe (and its barriers) defined as “reality 1”, BPC asks how we can transcend this reality - how to “break” reality 1, and exalts art, mind and imagination as the primary means of doing so (“non-physical approaches”), but also entertains multiverse theory - the very notion that “things could be different” (i.e. reality could have manifested and constructed itself in a different way) as a “crack in the tyranny” of reality 1.
                This not a lighthearted investigation - it is meant to be highly polemical, political and rebellious against the constraints of physical reality and any limitation. Its influence can be seen in the birth of NS’s “theoretical composition” that breaks all musical barriers - the quote that “NS must not be limited in any way”.
                see: “reality 1”, “barrier theory”, “NS”, “human universals”, “breaking”, “creative philosophy", "first man on earth"

brackets: A form innovation that originated in sketches for NS (the ‘H700’). Objectively stated: one axiom can be bracketed by another, basically prescribing binary or dialectical episodes, with the brackets generally smaller/shorter than the events bracketed. This idea can reconcile very disparate styles - for example, sonorist sound masses or nature style objects bracketed by ornate Baroque fugues or French court music. The idea was born from 2001: A Space Odyssey, where panoramic scenes of outer space and radical new worlds were “bracketed” by a finale set in a  Rococo-decorated room.
                see: “H700”, “axiom”, “general form”, “nature style”, “mature style”

breaking, in general: The visual metaphor of breaking - in the same sense as “breaking a habit” or “breaking a horse”. In composition and philosophy, I refer many times to breaking, the need to break through a problem to a solution, to break a loop (whose inertia wants it to keep looping) in order to integrate it into a long line (“loop-breaking”), to “break” an intractable problem by redefining it (“catch-22” breaking), etc.
BPC aims to break ‘reality 1’.
                see: “tonal solutions”, “loop breaking”, “catch-22 breaking”, “BPC”

calibration: Aligning or correcting disorder or misconception. When I use the term, it is often in reference to “thought” - to counteract the tendency to forget or slightly misinterpret an idea - the tendency toward “entropy of mind”. Dealing with a system with hundreds of moving parts (eventually many more), I often use summary documents specifically designed to realign myself - for example, to the situational origins of each term (“I.O. hermeneutics”), or using “to-do” or “mission” documents to refocus on the long-term trajectory after I’ve been immersed in a short-term project. One can also “calibrate” a listener by designing favorable conditions to experience and understand a work (see “listening requirements”)   
                see: “I.O. hermeneutics”, “listening requirements”.

catastrophe: A catastrophic end to a piece or section, or less frequently used as the holistic axiom or inclination of a piece of music. Sounding like disaster, collapse, dissonance, loss of control, dying, etc., it is an alternative to orderly resolutions or climaxes. Obviously, they can exist in lighter or heavier incarnations - free jazz sometimes “dissolves” at the end of a piece, jazz has open chords at ends of pieces (mMaj7, etc.), Sondheim’s Follies ends with all previous themes played simultaneously to represent a mental breakdown, the intense energy built up in Ravel’s La Valse and Bolero end in catastrophe, in reification it could symbolize entropy. If used with the intent of the piece in mind, catastrophes are honest - they better reflect the nature and implication of the music (a danse infernale, for example) than a formal, predictable end.
                Catastrophe and disorder at various scales are prescribed by ambiguity theory and in the inventory of tonal solutions.
                see: “ambiguity theory”, “strange poetry”, “axiom”, “tonal solutions”

choice problem: One of the largest philosophical and aesthetic problems - in the New Style and “100 Problems of Music”, and life in general. In light of limited time, the composer must make choices at every stage of the compositional process, but choice itself is problematic.
In NS (and in EFT), having a purpose, task, or object to represent (reification) can aid in making choice less arbitrary, yet many parameter choices will remain so, and even if everything were justified - they will still only belong to a subset of applicable choices - i.e. your work is one of many solutions, and you don’t have enough time to audition the results of all possible choices and choose the truly optimum. Without every option readily available to you, you will be psychologically/unconsciously limited. What about musical material that has millions of closely-related versions? (see “approximate music”) Tonal solutions that could go millions of different ways? Thus choice is more an act of circumstance and will, and a product of other arbitrary choices.
In NS:Conquering the choice problem (“exorcism of the arbitrary”) was one of the highest ideals in the 2006-2008 Principles document, and was reconciled after the “theoretical composition” breakthrough in November 2010: deem the choice made in the physical composition a “symbolic representative” of all other appropriate choices that could have been made. View the physical composition against a superimposition-shadow of all other choices the composer would have chosen as appropriate if given “necessary time” to choose.
                This uses the concept of “qualia” - a subjective “range” or “tolerance” a human uses to include/exclude a given object from a category, the composer possesses a critical ear with a subjective image of the compositional objects he would deem desirable  and/or acceptable (which then comprise a “set”). Thus the subjective “image” the composer has of the compositional moment creates the rationale for inclusion as a legitimate choice in the set.
                Only if NS specifically deems the choice or material “definitive”, (“particularizing” the choice), does the above assumption not apply.
                In pure theoretical composition, one doesn’t even need to designate a single representative, and the musical material itself is a set.
                Still, the choice problem, like most of the “100 problems” of music, can be circumvented less thoroughly by simply arbitrarily choosing, even embracing the arbitrary, integrating it in the compositional process as John Cage did with aleatory. The most widespread response to the choice problem is that musical material can be “proven” to be the “one right answer” in retrospect - by the greatness of the music that results, and other choices fall away as irrelevant.
                see: “100 Problems of Music,” “NS”, “theoretical composition”, “qualia”, “symbolic representative”, “tonal solutions”, “set theory”
                                "particularization", "shadow"

chord progression zones: Sections of pieces/songs permeated by a certain chordal vocabulary - “minor sections” in songs, “major sections”, “mixed mode” etc. Thus the composer plans out songs and parses chord progressions with this concept in mind. In “emotional counterpoint”(EFT)/emotional thesis” (where emotion/emotional tone is the main goal), juxtaposition of disparate zones (minor, major, + more complex/ambiguous vocabs) creates works with diverse and complex emotion.
                see: “EFT”, “emotional complexity”, “harmonic vocabulary/language”, harmonic/chord scaffolding"

Chronicles: My personal journal, began on New Years Day 2007, with an entry every day since. I got the idea from the journal that our professors required we keep while studying in Cambridge - it soon became personally priceless, and was an enjoyable read. The intent from the outset was to “chronicle” my progress,  trace certain ideas/concepts, calibrate me through reviewing, and free my mind from remembering my past in full detail. I credit it with my rapid progress, because when written, events and ideas were made concrete enough to take seriously, consider and develop - weeks and months that would have become hazy were instead highly eventful, articulated and ordered. Without Chronicles, the moments I lived through would have been lost, I could not have charted the origins of any of my concepts clearly, I wouldn’t have learned from my mistakes, and I would have a shorter view of my history in general. It is now on its 20th volume.
                see: “Aesthetics”, “Naples 2009-2010 visit”, Ideas Original, bio page

colonize: To go through, explore, to apply a new discipline or subject - I often use it in terms of using one ideology to reinterpret another. For example: “next Ideas Original will colonize rhythm”, meaning it will apply its approach to the topic of rhythm - expose its parameters, identify potential axioms, find the extremes and barriers, etc. From that point on, rhythm would be viewed through the results of I.O.’s approach. Historically, one could say classicism “swept through”, thus “colonized” all formal types of music of its day - symphony, concerto, suite, opera, mass, variation, and later reinterpreted/reintegrated fugue.
                see: “Ideas Original”, “I.O. as Approach”

combinatorics: A key process strategy at every level of composition. This refers to combination of musical objects - viewing composition as combination of objects and parameters. My practical “rendered music” process is open-ended, allowing me to consider many more possibilities that would otherwise be apparent, and to enjoy some surprise along the way. This involves creating pieces of musical material in advance (melodies, melodic-harmonic combinations, chord progressions, patterns, phrases, longer objects, even orchestration sessions) and physically juxtaposing and combining them (in a multi-track editor), using them to expand motifs in development sessions, and combining motifs in developing variation within the actual composition.
                NS uses “semantic combinatorics” - beginning with a “pool” of symbolic but simple objects, then combines them into more complicated objects to reify larger and more multifaceted concepts, then extends the combinatoric process into ‘sets’ and ‘domains’, resulting in interrelated interaction that approaches “complexity”.
                see: “semantic combinatorics”, developing variation”, “development sessions”, “NS”, "pre-NS pool", “complex system”

complex domain (NS): The parts/phases of the New Style that occur after objects from the initial pre-NS pool combine to form progressively complicated objects - past the initial phases of combination. The presence of sets, domains, intellectual packages, variations, tone-edits (both local and holistic) and perpetual development should push NS past “combinatorics” into behavior that resembles complexity - diversity, interrelatedness, interdependence, and adaptation/reaction, plenty of emergent phenomena and ultimately, implied independence from the composer. Since the goal is to reify the world at its most impressively and miraculously complex, attain sublimity and detail (then move on from there), the complex domain is of primary significance in NS.
                Philosophically, my 2009 conclusion that “complexity is the most truthful way to view the world” is also relevant here.
                see: “complex system”, “NS”, “pre-NS pool”, “NS proper”, “theoretical composition”, “tone-edit”, “developing variation”, "linear                                 domain"

complex objects (Salome): I have analyzed Richard Strauss’s leitmotivically-dense Salome many times from different approaches. In May/June of 2011, I parsed the score by bar, then divided the audio recording “by event” to match, starting a new snippet each time the emotion or texture changed significantly. I observed that each .mp3 snippet (282 moments in total) could be treated as an autonomous object in itself: Strauss’s 112-instrument ensemble combines in ambiguous and intangible ways in each part, mostly by layering disparate articulations of instrument groups, contributing to, what I called the “grammar of a complex object”. I see it as a model for NS in one of its higher combinatoric-levels: semantic leitmotifs in different combinations, each leitmotif changed but still recognizable, juxtaposed at different placements vs. others, layered organically within more general orchestral social dynamics with background and foreground. Arrays of symbols - each ‘readable’ at a surprisingly literal level.  
                Each moment has the "grammar of a symbol" - see "semiotics"
                “Complex” here is use colloquially, yet in a work like Salome, the ever-changing configurations do seem to resemble an evolving, undulating landscape of unpredictable, even emergent phenomena.
                see: “leitmotivic class”, “leitmotivic juggling”, “veiling”, “complex domain”, “intellectual cpt”, “social dynamics”, “disparate-dramatic” TOP

complex system: Though 2 years later I moved  past “descriptive” philosophy in late August 2011, in August 2009 I deemed the complex system “the most truthful way to see the world” . Complexity, a churning, evolving dialogue of diverse entities with unpredictability and emergent phenomena, seemed to match my observations: its vastness seemed to corroborate Socrates’ humble approach to knowledge (one can “harness but not control” complexity, it forcefully refutes simple understandings/descriptions of the world, as “irreducible complexity” triumphs over reductionism, NS a “willful assertion of complexity and inability to define the world”). The world is, objectively put, the “results of interactions at multiple levels”. Emergence seemed to describe genius and embraced change. It is certainly an imposing role-model for the New Style - it retains its abstract-art and variation-form origins but elevates toward complexity: it is a hybrid between scientific isolation/academic categorization/artistic conceptualization on one end, and the complex system on the other, though there may be higher domains in NS, such as “stillness”, silence or objective forms (“beyond” problem context)
                see: “complex domain (NS)”, “NS”, “zero-truth”, “descriptive philosophy”, “creative philosophy”

complexity standards: A quality-control process-step, consisting of situation-specific recommendations for the amount of complexity possible at any particular moment - it is like “barriers/extremes of music”, but sensitive to a given context. The standards can be derived objectively or from benchmarks - some examples: from Mozart, a heuristic is to change the contrapuntal dialogue every 10 seconds, from Salome the standard is to have a certain amount of leitmotifs present at any given time, from Ghostface Killah the standard is to switch the lyric approach a maximum of 4 bars, from Sondheim the rule is to never repeat a verse directly unless given a reason, and typically reharmonize. Keep in mind there are objective rationales behind each principle - agility, semantic richness, unpredictability and abstractness in lyricism, and the uniqueness of moment.
                As barriers/extremes have both a low and high, so do these standards - complexity is not a valid goal 100% of the time.
                see: “independent standards/toughest critic”, “complex objects”, “genius”

compositional inertia: The tendency of a piece of music to want to stay at the level of quality, complexity, form and scale that it currently possesses - to retain its current features - vs. expansion, transfiguration, etc.  It takes a skilled (and often willful) artist to move past (overlook) the current features and treat them as malleable (unfixed) enough to modify and revise. This is something I encounter after every rendered piece of music - the knowledge that I could either accept the piece as it is, or revise it - but in the process lose its current incarnation. See: “good is the enemy of great”, etc.
                see: "100 Problems of Music", "tonal solutions"

concept - levels of obviousness: When conceptualizing a work, the amount of ideas familiar to human experience can disqualify the ‘intuitive’ solution from use, as it would be obvious to most of the audience. Because of this, the artist must retreat from the first layers into less intuitive, more metaphorical levels. Once the next level is explored, they must retreat even deeper. In humor, for example, the first layer is a joke anyone could make, the second is more original or unforeseen, later layers question the entire premise/setup or even approach non-sequitur. In plot: more ambiguity, more twists, influence from other genres, supersession and turning points.
                More universally, it shows a level of subtlety, complexity and originality of thought.
                The origin of the “artistic strategies investigation” was the lure of the depth of visual art conceptual thought when compared to music.
                see: “indirectness”, "counterintuition", “conceptual counterpoint”, “supersession”, “turning point”

conceptual counterpoint: The NS system can be thought of as “raising” the level of musical mastery from counterpoint to “conceptual counterpoint” - creation and interaction of many levels, domains, reifications, “forces” etc. “It is like Strauss’s management of 100 orchestral voices shot into outer space” (June 2011)
                see: “NS”, “reification strategies”, “artist strategies”

counterintuition: This is a category of creative strategies/prompts that go against “norms” defined in various ways (vs. audience, vs. culture, vs. genre, vs. situation, vs. task, vs. history) - from conceptual ideas to very practical musical ones. Counterintuition was conceived simultaneously with transfiguration - was called “the transfigured counterintuitive”, to rescue the inevitable use of cliché through counterintuitive strategies:
                When confronted with counterintuition, the listener experiences momentary disorientation or surprise, though the aspect could be perfectly intuitive to its creator -thus it could signal the origin/birth of a new line of thought, language, aesthetic or genius. Practically, the prompt compilation can function as a list of unusual solutions to rescue and resist cliché - cliché simply becomes a starting point for invention (think "neoclassicism"). Counterintuition as theory can be used to explain the musical decisions of geniuses, especially upon first listens to their works (Mozart, Beethoven, Sondheim). In classical composition, counterintuition is eventually held accountable and reconciled through “total connectivity”. (see “total connectivity”). NS is the ultimate in counterintuition - as “the opposite of cliché is the impossible.”
                An issue of implementing counterintuition is whether one should refract/transform the existing music into a “transfigured” state, or create music anew with a holistically counterintuitive orientation.
                see: " In Ideas Original, the counterintuition concept has birthed: “transfiguration”, “refraction”, “ambiguity theory”, “introverted transfiguration”, “levels of obviousness”, “barriers and extremes”, “turning point”, “supersession”, “strange poetry”, and guided the “genius” investigations.

creative philosophy: The philosophical break from “descriptive” and “prescriptive” philosophy”, late August 2011:
                “NS has strong scientific and philosophical influences, but is primarily artistic. It is the artist quality that allows it to venture outside of truth battles and create its own worlds. It is the artistic quality that allows potential flaws to be poeticized. Limitations of NS take on a bittersweet existential feel, while attempts to transcend them become artistically valid. The invention is artistic invention.
                A non-prescriptive philosophy, or willed philosophy, shouldn’t be called philosophy - alternatives could be ‘aesthetics’, ‘mental spaces’ - a new discipline altogether. Philosophy carries the burden of normative truth, investigation and observation of reality1, and comprehensive philo suggests tackling all normative philosophical questions and giving your ‘opinion’. The philosophy I’ve written often displays a willed/defiant aesthetic that you know doesn’t hold up morally in any agreed-upon definition, but has its merits in other ways. You don’t want everyone living this way, so it differs from most public philosophical works, religion too. It is a “creative philosophy”, trying to define and explore certain ‘aesthetics’. Once called aesthetics/mental spaces, they can be wielded/codified, even optimized. Unlike philosophy, which is held to a standard of ‘accuracy’ in its description of and conclusions about real-world phenomena, ‘aesthetics’ would creatively manipulate chosen aspects of the world for certain purposes. This draws a clear parallel to NS’s inversion’s ‘discipline cpt’.
                It is apparent today that ‘truth’ is often bigger than the individual thinker - institutions, science, cultures, movements, events themselves, real-time webs and communities (and such) are able to tell us much more about reality than any one person. Recasting these things with an artistic eye, rather than “reportage”, reinvigorates them. Similarly, my descriptive philosophy has all of its main components - Socratic doubt, complexity, irreducibility, human universals, scientific method, etc., meaning that it’s about as aligned with reality as it can get - but alignment with reality isn’t an individualistic property. It’s simply parallel with the vanguard of all professional disciplines in aggregate.” Finally, descriptive philosophy is also known as “assertive philosophy”, which, though valid at certain truth-strata (see “stratification”, often crumbles under full rigor of science, logic and argument, to “zero-truth” Socratic doubt.
                NS has a mix of both aspirations: (POTU(G) reification signals the former - BPC and personal aesthetics the latter)
                see: descriptive philosophy”, “BPC”, “willful” TOP

cross-pollination (NS): Interaction between NS domains and the objects contained within them - such as between domains with objects representing “love” and objects symbolizing “death”. This has since been superseded by a more complex conception of the organization of reifications and the interaction between them.
                see: “domain __”, “combinatorics”, “NS”, “linear domain”/“complex domain”

death domain: A main philosophical issue, a large subject for reification in NS/NS domain-group, a main theme of my autobiographical works, involving:
                - the mental and emotional climate surrounding death - “in light of death”, the “transfigured world”
                - the implications of death, the barrier of a fixed life span on the individual
                - the extension of individual death to planetary and universal death, the relationship between them
                - “beyond problem context” and reality1 polemics attacking death
                - a personal named aesthetic
                - the “death” of the New Style itself, the “end” of NS in linear form (?)
                Practically and most personally, NS is a self-proclaimed “lifetime work”, so the presence of death limits the New Style itself, and only a fraction of its potential can be explored within my lifespan, especially  at the individual reification/concept-level and combinatorics-level.
                see: “NS”, “Naples 2009-2010 visit”, "planetary/universal death", “negative absolutes”, “sublimity”, “BPC”

deep generation concept (BOK): In conceptualization/reification strategy, one option is the “deep-generation work” model. Take, for example “an opera based on a play based on a novel based on a myth”… Think then, of the amount of ideological/philosophical, critical, and historical information that exists around/behind the end result (the opera, in this case). Then, a painter becomes inspired by the opera, immortalizes the heroine, and the chain continues.
                The point is, when creating a work that symbolizes a subject, you conduct research on the subject. You find that many works of art already exist that use the subject directly and indirectly, and large bodies of knowledge/theory already exist around this subject. It follows, then, that in the NS group of reifications that deal with this subject, many should reference earlier works as their model - either in small ways (allusions, quotes/audio snippets/samples, dramatic (programmatic) conversion of the plot form to absolute music (see “general form”)) or in large/apparent ways (re-imagining a plot or theme in different media, using an event or myth as inspiration for the work, using meta-referential or postmodern strategies.) Even in a revolutionarily new form, it could utilize the existing critical and academic knowledge on the subject. In this way, you increase richness and depth - and most importantly, encode and preserve more information about the subject, which is part of NS’s duty to POTU(G).
                With that said, higher genius ambition would suggest to invent everything, but keep the deep-generation model - so invent the myth, write the novel, distill it to a play, then compose the opera, then go postmodern and refract the opera. That is what NS ultimately aspires to do, even if it has to only imply partial aspects of each tier of work. (Then, you go about criticizing the opera in a variation form, while encoding its language by appropriating other objects) and then combining it with other NS objects….
                see: “NS”, “theoretical possibilities”, “body of knowledge (BOK)”, “intellectual package (IP)”, “concept - levels of obviousness”
                                "dramatic conversion"

defining objects (long-line): Objectively speaking, the prominent objects that are assimilated/subsumed into a long line of music.
                The critical implication is that the composer must willfully disregard the individual power of an object (“assertion”), and instead proceed forward, using it functionally and transitionally. Looking at Beethoven’s symphonic lines, there are many candidates for primary themes he disregards using a higher threshold for eventfulness and continues forward. Supersession theory and “composing backwards” address this: even the most conspicuous or autonomous object can be superseded, using certain supersession techniques (either dwarfed or undercut, varied, reinterpreted, etc.), and through focusing on later events, the composer regains perspective and refocuses on function over assertion.
                This is also related to “threading”,  the process of weaving/embedding a melody into/over chord progressions and objects.
                see: “supersession theory”, “loop-breaking”, “assertion”

dehumanization: The need at certain philosophical junctures to remove the human being from his place as central concern. This can apply to anything that is typically human-centric. Religion is the most obvious example, but the majority of philosophy, art and drama address human concerns, problems and interaction. In religion, the entire universe is made for humans. In music, there is no substitute for the expressive and attention-grabbing potential of the human voice, the  human scale (song) is by far the most popular, and disparate flights of emotion and dynamic (that mimic the drama of human interaction) dominate instrumental music (“disparate-dramatic”).
                Many of The New Style’s languages (nature style, the minimal H700 objects, reifications and described music) represent a removal of humanity from central focus. New style philosophy is moving away from “descriptive philosophy” that focuses on the human condition and action, engages in religious polemic - calibrating cosmology away from the universe as “a gift for humans”. The investigation “human universals” reveals that since human nature is consistent, there is slim chance that the world will attain any of the long-term goals that humanists and scientists tend to advocate, despite technology moving predictably forward. The complex system, though exhibited by many entities initiated by humans, also exists in phenomena independent of human existence. Aesthetically, NS must dehumanize itself (“esotericism”, “genius”) or be suffocated by the norms of human expectations.
                Of course, since NS represents dialogue between different ideologies (reifications), there are plenty of human-centric and especially personal aesthetics that combine to present the entire picture, which is the objective of ‘variation as Socratic dialogue’ in NS-proper.
                see: “disparate-dramatic”, “human universals”, “vocal surrogate”

dense phrase: Phrases close together or in rapid succession, a fast rate of harmonic change - solo jazz piano improvisation, for example
Also could be a complexity standard in certain contexts.                

description: The idea/action of describing music has several levels of importance - it can be a simple process step where the composer begins creation by describing his music’s concept in writing or other means (visual sketches, poetic writing, notation) - the most flexible the composer will ever be is when describing, before he is beholden to any physical music, but dealing in only ideas - it is a clean, efficient way of conceptualizing and composing, to work out the music before becoming mired in actual physical composition.
                Description is the central revelation of the New Style, along with the principles of reification and variation. Description was the impetus behind November 2010’s birth of “theoretical music”, opening up hundreds of theoretical possibilities and freeing NS from many of 100 Problem’s limitations. How? Through description -  while retaining musical lineage and thought but freeing music from audio itself - music can ultimately transcend any limitation - whether it be practical/resource-based or the attainment of theoretical/physically “impossible” music. Music is distilled to  thought, and exists in the composer’s and listener’s mind/imagination. The analogy here is with theoretical disciplines, or even novels. (see “NS and the Listener” paper).
                The New Style’s expansion throughout 2011 was predicated on this, resulting in a full vocabulary of “theoretical possibilities” to use in reification and post-reif combinatorics, while description itself was expanded to utilize any appropriate means (multimedia description).
                see: “theoretical possibilities”, “NS”, “TL/traditionally limited” music

descriptive philosophy: “Truth-based”, traditional philosophy - philosophy (and other disciplines) whose main task is to “describe the world” accurately and perceptively. A profound yet utilitarian function of philosophy. Juxtaposed with "creative philosophy", a break made in August 2011. NS has a mix of both aspirations (POTU(G) reification signals the former - BPC and personal aesthetics the latter)
                see: "creative philosophy", "comprehensive philosophy"

developing variation: Used as a “default” feature of my music (unless language parameters supersede it), development in its traditional definition takes a motif or small piece of “musical material” and transforms into various new incarnations and forms - expanding and exploring it, placing it in diverse contexts, using it and referring to it throughout the composition.
                It is invention within economy, resulting in
                                1.) more material (fluency)
                                2.) a closely regulated tone/unity (consistency of tone)
                                3.) economic construction of large structure from a m single idea
                                4.) transfiguration/elevation of the musical material to greater significance in retrospect
                                5.) a scientific investigation of the possibilities of the material
                                6.) exorcises some of the arbitrariness of choice in composition
                                7.) an organic, integrated incarnation to variation form (vs. the scientific “separation” of each variation)
                development is an ideal in many of the greatest composers - Bach, the classicists, most notably Beethoven, Brahms, Richard Strauss, Stravinsky, serialism to Sondheim.
Initially I created a list of development prompts to put musical material through, called the “development matrix”. The steps were soon made mandatory (as basic “due diligence”), then expanded into a vision of many pieces of musical material being developed at once and left open-ended to delay choice. Soon I realized the entirety of Ideas Original should be used as a development matrix, and in 2011 development itself was generalized theoretically.
                see: “development matrix”, “development session”, “appropriation objects”, “combinatorics”

development matrix: The list of development prompts to put musical material through, either optional or mandatory. This has since been complicated and expanded: the entirety if Ideas Original should be used as a guide for actualizing the potential of musical material, and appropriation objects, development sessions and packages enhance the toolkit.
                see: "developing variation", "development session", "Ideas Original", "appropriation objects", "transfiguration"

development session: The session (in a multitrack/MIDI editor) where the musical development takes place - there can be many sessions for one piece of material.
                see: “development”, “development matrix”, “appropriation objects”, “combinatorics”

device (musical material): Synonymous with musical object, object, musical material (in some cases). Composing with “devices” (MIDI objects) was a revelation in 2006-2007, when I composed with melody and accompaniment but had little awareness of the scaffolding and uniqueness that  the object orientation could provide.
                see: “object __”, “combinatorics”, “defining objects”, “appropriation objects”, “object sessions”, “DRT”

directionality (direction): The direction of a musical object - ascending, descending, and/or the range/pitch-range the object exists in. It can be seen/used at many scales, from note-note to an entire piece, but mostly refers to the object-scale. “Extreme directionality” is a striking axiom.
                see: "DRT (directional rhythmic thesis)", "axiom"

disparate-dramatic: Music with diverse event and a dramatic orientation, the vast majority of music - as opposed to the nature style (pieces with a singular processes, as in many of the H700 objects). Associated with human-scale drama.
                see: “TL/traditionally limited” music, “radicality spectrum”

dissonant frame: an approach to harmony, where the composer begins from the assumption of dissonance.
                whether a piece is viewed as primarily dissonant with flashes of consonance/tonality, or primarily tonal with flashes of dissonance.
                when composing with certain objectives, such as ambiguity theory, collage or the fleeting style, this is advantageous, as the composer no longer views dissonance as an “anomaly” and tonality becomes more fleeting and thus valuable.
                see: "harmonic vocabulary"

diversified monochromaticism: An orchestration concept, using a consistent or single material (like “diamonds”) or an axiom (like “shimmer”) as its basis, but qualifying that the material have variation of texture, scale and source within it, creating inner diversity. Many parameters can be applied to a monochromatic ensemble to increase this “inner diversity” - foreground/background, spatial position, refracted appropriation objects subsumed within the texture, sizes/types/brands/versions within the instrument group, and many more. Diversified mono is a “stock modification”, designed to ensure that sonorism and monochromaticism are highly detailed with inner diversity by default.
Transfiguration ensembles and monochromaticism are ultimately designed for reification - that instrument ensembles have the same audible unity that correspond to chemical “material”, “substance”, even “element” in the real-world. Either that, or a deliberate pluralism for a specific effect.
                The tone-edit can sweep over a disparate ensemble and refract it into monochromaticism - but the “diversified” aspect protects the original orchestration from losing all its diversity.
                In NS, I had the concept of uniting the entire NS universe with diversified monochrome into “abstracted parallel universes” - like   like everything overlaid w/ frost, gilded w/ gold, transparent, etc. (see “objective modifications,” other refractions), but since tone-editing should always be ideological, this relationship is more complex - “under” the monochrome, the ideology of the tone-edit affects each domain and its objects differently, based on the philosophical implications of the force. I.e. death > monochrome in____ > the death force acting in diverse ways but “draped” in diversified monochrome.
                see: “aggregate collage”, “tone-edit”, “transfiguration ensembles”, "stock modifications"

domain “bleed” (NS): Each ‘domain’ containing symbols of a subject will possess “fuzzy” borders, for several reasons: the subjective criteria the composer uses for inclusion, the fact that the symbols also reference/address other subjects (thus “bleeding” out towards the domains of other subjects), and in levels of ‘NS-proper’ combinatorics, where domains naturally interact in a dialogue (“cross-pollination”) etc.     
                see: “fuzzy set” in set theory, “cross pollination”, “NS-proper”, “qualia”, “combinatorics”

domain blanket (NS, tone-edit): The domain blanket is created by the idea that each subject domain - despite the disparate approaches of individual reifications within - possesses an overarching “tone” or “mental space”, due to the similar or single topic. This is similar to “diversified monochromaticism” - diversity “under” a homogenous philosophical domain. This “blanket” could permeate because of something underlying the topic (the finality of death as “overriding” the individuality of reifs, for example) - something more permanent or prominent. The “blanket domain” tone-edit is typically determined in retrospect, a philosophical “verdict”. This is a controversial aspect of NS, and is open to prompt-based revision.
                see: “NS”, “subject domain”, “tone-edit”

dramatic conversion: Breaking through the typical forms of music (song, sonata, etc.), dramatic conversion was an investigation of parallels between dramatic plot and musical form - resulting in the idea to convert the specific plot-forms of dramas (films, plays) to music form. This represented a step toward less arbitrary composition, programmaticism foreshadowing reification, and an early general form approach, plus my influence from movie soundtracks, that have often resulted in interesting, unique sequencing of music - for example, the Taxi Driver OST begins with a lavish but foreboding theme that decays into madness by the end of the score through progressively dissonant variations. It gives me not only an objective form (variation), but an inclination (degeneration) - the same way general form suggests an ideology/approach as well as sequencing (form) ideas.
                see: “general form”, “reification”, “plot frames”, “plot points”

DRT, directional rhythmic thesis: Rhythmic pattern combined with direction, usually in MIDI objects. I often compose by combining objects I pre-planned and composed, and began with rhythmic pattern, or began with melodic motifs - combining pitch-direction and pattern represents a higher level of information in the objects vs. pure pattern, giving more context to the uses of the pattern. DRT objects can function as very literal suggestions for the form of the finished object, like a subset of explicit form, “micro form”, a stencil in the rendering of event. Thus they became more important in the MIDI combinatoric method.
                see: “directionality”, “appropriation objects”, “MIDI”-related terms, “rhythmic thesis dispenser”, “MIDI collage”

dry counterpoint: Counterpoint used as mere texture or effect, ‘chromaticism’, treated as rote - vs. intellectual/intelligent/“thinking”/reasoned counterpoint, that contains real information and semantic meaning - a “dialogue” and “social processes”, per the ideals of “exorcising the arbitrary” and reification. While intellectual counterpoint is one of two fundamental axioms in NS, dry counterpoint is seen as meaningless, semantically barren.
                see: “intellectual counterpoint”, “axiom”, “social processes”, “strange poetry”, “semantic content”

dummy file: The dummy file is a file that lacks a type and size (usually a shortcut file stripped of its extension), whose name can be used to communicate information. It is the organizational innovation of 2012’s “I.O. portal”, which was a restructuring of Ideas Original away from documents toward a very flexible, economical folder and empty-file-type organizational scheme. It utilizes hyperlinking between files and between folders. It has a default alphabetical organization, is transparent vs. documents because one doesn’t need a program (aside from Explorer) to open them, they are faster, take up a fraction of the space of documents, and are easily added to and expanded.
                see: “Ideas Original”

duplicity (NS): The term duplicity (also “multiplicity”)- “multiple meanings or uses” - has several applications in NS:
                In NS (especially its “stoic incarnation” that literalizes and explains less to the viewer), an object can symbolize multiple things at once. In the pre-NS pool, this is a given - as objects can be used in many different contexts (“semantic combinatorics”), as objects and ideas in the world are. With symbolic objects within domains, many objects will address multiple subjects, not just the subject of their domain - i.e. the human domain should include death, the death domain contain objects that symbolize humankind, etc.  Hopefully, each reification wouldn’t be the same - allowing for this logical duplicity, but not redundancy - like “modified repetition” in developing variation.
                see: “NS”, “reification”, “subject domain”, “domain bleed”, “multiplicity”, “NS-proper”, “semantic combinatorics”

EFT, effect-function thesis: A fundamental Ideas Original term/investigation, originally called “emotional thesis”, now called “effect-function” thesis - based on the effect or function a musical event/object has (“emotion” is now a subset of effect). It was designed to investigate and formalize emotion from a listener perspective - why music creates the emotion/effect it does, why and when a musical event/object should be used, and to create a body of theory to govern emotion-based music (song, opera, movie soundtrack, program music). It can be arranged “by object” or “by emotion/effect” - and in the latter, one can justify an object’s use by its function (a practical solution to the “choice problem”), objectify objects past genre by the effect/emotion they createe, and can “compose into being” many ingenious, counterintuitive uses for common objects.
                Effect/function could mean: structural, dramatic, emotional/character, symbolic or intellectual function.
                see: shining character”, “PMF-EFT”, “complex emotion”, “transfiguration”, “justification” TOP

The concept of “embedding”, primarily conceived in ambiguity theory, means the application or injection of musical material into an existing context/space/gap in a composition. Some examples: a countermelody or spoken dialogue between lead melody phrases, extra bars or silence between phrases, threading leitmotifs into an existing musical object or axiom (adding “semantic meaning”), inserting a quote into an instrument solo, a momentary microcosmic version of the macrocosm etc. - many more instances are listed in the “ambiguity theory” document.. Embeds can be treated as momentary ambiguous episodes, but also a process approach - creating axiom or texture first then injecting melody second, for example (creating a more freeform environment). Can be implemented to an existing composition or used at the outset.
                see: “ambiguity theory”, “refraction”, “axiom”, “transfiguration”

ensemble design:
A formal name/category for assembling and evaluating orchestration combinations, an early Ideas Original document. When listening to and thinking about music, I’m always accumulating ideas about the use and combination of instruments. This can be parsed into ideas for objects or contexts (like orchestration combination/doubling ideas for lead melodies) or entire ensembles (which led to the “transfiguration ensemble” list) and “table of the elements” in NS, where instrument and their combinations are seen as analogous to elements, substances and materials.
                see: “orchestration”, “transfiguration ensembles”, “diversified monochromaticism”, “table of the elements”

equal polyphony:
A contrapuntal/fugal concept - my specific term for the Bachian ideal of “equality between voices”: as distinguished from homophonic music (where a single melody is supported by a subsidiary accompaniment) and faux-counterpoint (where countermelodies and figurations interact with the theme but never approach it in importance). It is controversial whether equality is actually achievable, as for example, listener attention seems to go to whatever voice the theme is stated in, a listener can only follow one voice at a time with full concentration, and many other mitigating musical parameters like volume-level and instrument range complicate the objective. “Intellectual counterpoint” tries to redefine the question into a multifaceted, social one, legitimizing each voice by giving it a specific role to play.
                see: “fugue”, “intellectual counterpoint”, “axiom”

“Understood by a single person or those who are initiated” - an ideal of genius, a genius objective in “genius task/approach”.
The benefits of esotericism were exposed in mid-2011 development of the New Style, while analyzing James Joyce:
                Understandability to an audience is a conscious factor in the creation of a work of art. Positively, the purpose of communication can encourage universality, coherence and economy. Negatively, it censors the creator by discouraging a certain level of complexity and personal meaning, especially if he is trying to push the boundaries of a subjective discipline (the task of “actualizing genius” for example).
                This is where esotericism could he advantageous: without the burden of translation to other parties, the creator is liberated into greater complexity, irreducible complexity (no simplification from the original conception), more personal artistic objectives, more idiosyncratic terminology, the design of new thought languages (ways of thinking), and more layers of these factors. Personal terminology and layers of it  (personally-created terms to explain other personally-created terms) have become an issue in the New Style, while personal subject matter (esp. specific names and places) is relevant in the autobiographical works. Against “100 Problems”, it can be argued that the more unique the  composer/artist, the more he justifies his right to exist.
                Aesthetically, esotericism can seem miraculous - as “coming from another world”, and revelatory - “new modes of thought”, thus is a useful approach to radical art. It would allow the New Style to develop without limitation. Objectively, it is often symptomatic of genius - Joyce’s dual novels, for example, where he seems to be writing (thus thinking) in an original way, unrelated to existing human language…
                see: “genius”, “blinding genius”, “thought language”, “reification”, “radicality spectrum”, “100 Problems of Music”.

Analogous to “event” as such - “musical event”, form, position. Unusually synonymous with “object”, as a musical object in a composition becomes an event. Many of the lists in Ideas Original describe musical events, and categorize them in different documents. A point of equivalence in symbolism - as “event” in music is parallel to “event” in real life, unfolding in time dramatically.
                see: “form”, “position”, “Ideas Original”

explicit form:
Benchmarking the specific (explicit) form of another work (vs. abstract forms like sonata and variation) - begun by benchmarking other music then expanding into “dramatic conversion” (form from dramatic works) and ultimately “general form”, where explicit form is derived from any discipline or subject. This is advantageous practically, as it suggests ways for music to be structured and ways a moment could be continued forward, and also an early pillar of programmaticism/symbolism - encoding/expressing information about a subject through imitating its form, events, or physical proportions.
                see: “audio benchmarking”, “general form”, “dramatic conversion”, “reification”

faux-anthological list:
The approach of I.O., to anthologize all musical possibilities in advance, systematically at the outset, in order learn the subject efficiently and to make fully-informed decisions. The list topics came from both hallowed categories and new terms/phenomena I created - originally Ideas Original was one document called “Musical Ideas”, then was parsed out into the first round of individual documents. It is a process that can be applied to any discipline. In the spirit of intellectual honesty, here it is recalibrated as “faux-anthological” (though typically referred to as “anthological”) because it is implied that the list would be completely exhaustive if given appropriate time. Again the problem of inclusion rests with the composer, often making subjective choices. In 2011, each list was generalized in a custom manner, adding “all” and “none”, etc. NS may use the lists as objects in themselves, like musical material - see “set theory”.
                see: “Ideas Original”, “I.O. as Approach”, “Generalized I.O.”

first man on earth’ thought experiment:
In the “genius” impulse, trying to derive strategies for visionary inventions in the future, I imagined the “first man on earth” and all the thoughts, connections and actions he would have had to make in order to create everything that exists today. A historical timeline aided me. Could he have foreseen everything that happened and was invented? How? Generally, he is the symbol of the ultimate inventor and creative individual. The findings can be helpful to the individual now, trying to foresee the next 1000’s of years - we are  cavemen to a more advanced culture, and this moment is the past to all future history. This work led to ‘human universals” and “hypothetical innovations”, among other statements and concepts:
                see: “gateway theory”, “genius”, “human universals”, “hypothetical innovations”

The term “flattening” has two main applications:
                1. In NS reifications, the “flattening” of a live performance into audio (to be manipulated or collaged as such), as reifs don’t translate                             beyond NS as compositions to be performed - they exist only in NS, as sound.
                2. The conversion of a folder-based organization to a single-tier alphabetical prefix organization (in “dummy file” organization)
                                (encouraging transparency)
                see: “NS”, “reification”, “dummy file organization”

"flavor” of totality - generalization (NS):
When each Ideas Original document was generalized, each document possessed several “totalities”. “Flavor” of totality is a colloquial term that differentiates these specifically-purposed totalities from “universal totality”. Exploring and naming all “flavors” or “tints” of totality (sets) associated with a reification/reif subject is part of the general mandatory “I.O. process” that applies to the creation of some reifications (ideally most), and if not applicable to the creation of the reif, it’s applicable to the development/variation of it.
                An example: the theory of “transfiguration” led to “transfiguration strategies”, which led to ideas such as extremes/barriers and transfigured ensembles, which, when combined with theoretical generalization, led to a certain “flavor” of totality - generalization in regards to transfiguration.
                see: “NS”, “generalization”, “Ideas Original”, “transfiguration”

fleeting style:
A general name for any music that possesses “fleeting” traits - delicacy, agility, momentary harmonic “flashes” of emotion, an elemental power (sublimity), ambiguity beyond pure coherence of phrase, orchestral layering, and dissolving emotional worlds - especially Fin De Siecle-era works - Debussy’s Jeux, Strauss’s Salome, Berg’s Wozzeck, Schoenberg’s Pierrot Lunaire, Scriabin’s Poem of Ecstasy, as well as some movie soundtracks of Herrmann. They are important benchmarks in compositional sophistication: their features led me to audio-based collage, which I see as having potential for even more layering of harmonic/melodic content and rhythmic agility (see “veiling”). Fleeting traits correspond to “ambiguity theory” objectives, which in turn reflect philosophical concepts like complexity, humor, the fragility of life (death domain), emotion, memory and moment.
                Technically, the fleeting style works exhibit some of the most difficult skills in music - the intangible combination of dozens of voices into an intangible whole (counterpoint + ambiguity), leitmotivic (thus semantic), development, harmonic sophistication (esp. chromaticism and modulation), complicated phrase, and more.
                Often juxtaposed with the “transition language”, which is predicated on coherence of phrase.
                In “Maj7 transfiguration”, the fleeting style axiom is one of the ways to “transfigure” an extended chordal vocabulary past block chords                                 into higher art.
                A candidate for “personal style” in NS.
                see: “freeform orientation”, “ambiguity theory”, “axiom”, “veiling”, “complex objects”, “Joycean music”, “developing variation”
                                “personal style”

force-object dualism (NS):
In the New Style, a subject can be symbolized and function as both an object and a force - for example, I could create a reification that symbolizes death (an object-based approach), or I could have death “act” upon an existing object. In the second example, death isn’t an object but a force - perhaps decaying or slowing the piece of music it is applied to. It was a point of controversy in 2011, because many subjects were revealed to act more like forces than objects, unbalancing the basic NS structure at that point. In the newest NS revision, the pre-NS pool allows the original object and/or force to be seen individually, then express itself in many diverse ways through semantic combinatorics in NS-proper.
                see: “NS”, “reification”, “dualism”/“multiplicity”

freeform orientation:
( see: “ambiguity theory”, “fleeting style”). Freeform orientation is “ambiguity theory” reinterpreted as music’s inclination to break out of its constraints (various parameters) toward a “freeform” orientation. It’s an alternate definition of “ambiguity theory” less focused on the effect (ambig) than the composer’s approach/mindset - the musician’s comfort with complicated ideas and structures that aren’t immediately/easily assimilated by the listener. Most apparent in works that still maintain some normalized “genre” values, giving them structure to “break” from: I have observed it in Jimi Hendrix, free jazz (Coleman, Vandermark), Norman Connors, Michel Legrand, others.
                see: “ambiguity theory”, “variation orientation”, “refraction”, “genius”, “fleeting style”, “transfiguration”, “counterintuition”

full commitment:
As “barriers/extremes” was created because I hating being superseded by an unforeseen extreme, “Full Commitment” was created because I hated being superseded by the outrageousness of a concept - especially when it was a vindication of a seemingly bad idea or principle. Full commitment works have the spark of genius in them, although they may not always “work”. It is ultimately an approach - create a  radical work by being fully committed to an idea and following the implications past or even toward the litany of “negative criticisms”. These “negative criticisms”, when listed, become a good guide: anything that is “too __” is probably actualizing that aspect, becoming a symbol of it, becoming a language built around it - especially in the hands of a master who knows when to balance the radicalism with normative “back-end restorations” - and when not to.
                Examples: Bach’s Well Tempered Clavier is “too much fugue”, “monochromatic”, “too intellectualized; too complex”. 2001: A Space Odyssey is too still, too slow, no human protagonist, not enough dialogue. Minimalism is too repetitive, Penderecki and the Rite of Spring are too violent. Ulysses is too esoteric, too personal. Rap has no melody. Most of these works are autistic (limited), but some are also discursive or outrageously anthological. Take all these criticisms and reverse them, and you see the gaping gateways for new languages - the main criticisms becomes their main strengths.
                “Back-end restoration” is an optional step to supplement the extremity with normative elements, for a more well-rounded work.
                see: “genius”, "higher solution", “back-end restoration”, “autistic language”, “holistic axiom”, “barriers/extremes”

full implication ‘exits’:
The observation that in whatever direction the New Style is taken, it seems to “exit” or “escape” normative limits when followed to its full implication. This is treated as a “personality trait” of NS (and desirable in light of “BPC”)
                Through its evolution, the New Style has: left audio for description, left absolute music for reification, left ‘real-world thought that utilizes music’ (reification) for the NS inversion/real-world counterpoint (‘musical thought manipulating real-world objects’), and more. Music criticism ends at “100 Problems” which ends up essentially proclaiming  music an impossibility. Ideas Original documents were generalized into sets, then Ideas Original itself was made a process that can apply to disciplines other than music.
                When philosophy was taken to its full implication, it created the “BPC” vs. “reality 1” dichotomy, “identity multiplicity” and ultimately “creative philosophy”, which discards the normative prescriptive burden of philo altogether, while genius at its full implication created the concepts of “universal genius”/“traits of God”, “gateway theory”, “esotericism”.

full commitment - back-end restoration:
When creating a full-commitment work, you never limit a work on the front end. You begin from a fully-committed, controversial, radical work devoid of certain key artistic norms, bound to set off a critical firestorm. Then, because shock is not a guarantee of quality or meaning and is often hollow, you refer to “back-end restorations” to supplement full-commitment by adding things that were initially lost. Drawing from the “things every language should have (or deliberately reject)” document, the composer “fills out” the work, broadens its profundity, enriches its musical language, expands its lyric subjects, humanizes the robotic, adds universality to the personal, dilute the rhetoric on a certain topic, add a unifying reprise to a relentless list song etc. - but only subtly, and only when absolutely necessary, because the radical traits should still be the most overt part of the work, but restoration is to add seriousness/sincerity to what could be seen as gimmickry/sensationalism.
                see: “full commitment”, “refraction”, “stock modifications”, “tone-edit”

The full range of a parameter - usually in music. With all the different musical language parameters, I have often wondered, for example whether (and how) I should reconcile sonorism with songlike melody, or simplicity with perilously gnarled, entangled counterpoint, dissonance and classical harmonic vocabularies, or “nature style” vs. “transition style”. In tonal solutions, “full spectrum” is the approach that reconciles this - it is a reconciliatory theory by nature, because it redefines dialectics or paradoxes as extremes on a spectrum, with many gradations in between to aid smooth transition. It “breaks” black-and-white thought.
                The full spectrum is also a goal - to include as much potential of musical language as possible in a work: think of the range in works like Salome, Hendrix’s “1983”, West Side Story and Sweeney Todd, "A Day In The Life", Mozart and Beethoven symphonies. A great work must (at first) have the entirety of musical vocabulary available for use, and see it as a spectrum rather than either-or.
                see: “mature style”, “full commitment”, “counterintuition”, “100 Problems of Music”

gateway theory:
A phenomenon where a single new idea, original enough in some way thus peripheral enough versus existing ideas, creates a new dimension, opening up a world within/between  known parameters that is unexpectedly vast and differentiated, like a membrane expanding from zero-mass, or roots of a massive tree grown from a single seed. The new idea spawns a discipline, a genre, etc., then many sub-disciplines and interdisciplinary branches.
                This is what I.O. has already done: At the outset, I wanted to “create an alternative body of theory” to “ensure uniqueness” - for example, the theory of “transfiguration” led to “transfiguration strategies”, which led to ideas such as extremes/barriers and “transfigured ensembles”, which, when combined with theoretical generalization, led to a certain “flavor” of totality - generalization in regards to transfiguration. None of these are apparent when first looking at music theory - they were only accessible through the initial “gateway theory”. This is also the point of thought languages - to provide gateways to new/unforeseen “membranes” of thought, by thinking in a new way. Similarly, NS deliberately set out to do this - by predicating the system on so many concepts peripheral to those of traditional music, NS in some ways feels like a parallel universe.
                This “membrane” concept also explains why disciplines and inventions that seem obvious in retrospect weren’t noticed and developed sooner - they lacked a context, lacked a space to assert their identity enough to be considered a named “thing” in their own right. Often it is a new way to organize, interpret or see existing things.
                In NS, the highest reification tasks are gateways.
                see: “genius”, “esotericism”, “first man on earth”, “full commitment”, “Ideas Original”, “NS”, “flavor of totality”

general form:
Beginning with modeling the forms and event-sequences of specific pieces of music (“explicit form”), then to dramatic works (“dramatic conversion”), “general form” opens up form benchmarking to any discipline/form - modeling  not only the structure but the orientation/approach as well, as an essential part of NS’s reification process. General form began as “idea types” - what forms do ideas come in? Currently the answer is 600+ basic forms (hardly exhaustive) - from music, drama, science, literature, advertising, oratory, poetry, architecture, visual art, just to name a few. The choice of general form will descend from the reification subject - a musical symbol for religion, for example, might convert the floorplan of a specific cathedral into musical sections. General form is expanded tremendously by “theoretical possibilities” such as spatial and geo-spatial location, collage/veiling and others.
                see: “idea types”, “dramatic conversion”, “reification”, “theoretical possibilities”, “explicit form”, “dramatic conversion”

The “theoretical composition” revelation at the end of 2010 liberated me to view “description” (in statements and words) as  powerful and official - as many disciplines (especially mathematics and science) already know. Thus I used statements derived from set theory to address my discomfort with Ideas Original documents (the piecemeal lists instances that I deemed “faux-anthological”) - closing any gaps with words like “all”, “none”, “all relevant/applicable”, etc. at the top of every document.
                In the New Style, generalization into a full set is one of the “theoretical possibilities” - all relevant candidates for melodic material, for example (see “choice problem”). In the NS universe, however, generalization is powerful and must be used carefully - I’ve already prescribed that one shouldn’t “generalize or totalize outside of the reification-level” - i.e. you need a specific occasion or reason to generalize, no context-less generalization. Generalization and superposition (in rigorous reaction to the choice problem) is juxtaposed with particularization: there’s a pivot/“web” between particular decisions and generalized ones - each particularization has a web of alternate decisions, and each general bank of decisions has particular ones as options.
                see: “description”, theoretical composition”, “faux-anthological list”, “Ideas Original”, “genius”, “NS”, “choice problem”,                                                              “superimposition”, “theoretical possibilities”

generalized I.O.:
Generalization was a 2011 transformation I enacted on every Ideas Original document - taking each document, and each thread in it, towards their “full implication”. It begins with a simple statements (acts of description) - “all __ “, “no __” (negative generalization), “all relevant/applicable __ in a particular context”, etc. It elevates the “faux-anthological lists” symbolically toward achieving their true intent - full lists, foreseeing and describing all implications of their theories. As a “philosopher-in-music”, it was simply due-diligence - developing variation on the documents themselves - an investigatory process that flows naturally from my existing body of theory - following the implications of what you have already observed as “true” or desirable.
                NS then can wield “sets” containing (all) music that the theories reference, in whatever way the set is defined (“qualia”, parameters, etc.)
                The other use of the term is in regard to the approach and strategies of Ideas Original applied to other disciplines - “generalized” from music to other areas (the “I.O. as approach” document)
                see: “generalization”, “faux-anthological list”, “Ideas Original”, “genius”, “theoretical composition”, description”, NS”
                                “I.O. as approach”

genius process/tasks:
The lengthy “genius” investigation converted into actions - functionalized (prescriptive actions/processes), and also resembling goals or criteria-events (actions that signify genius.) These eventually generalized into “hypothetical innovations” and “traits of God”, both far past current achievements or measures associated with genius, but followed logically from the implication of the investigation.
                see: “genius”, “NS”, “generalization”, “reification strategies”, "gateway theory"

“What is/would be genius in music?” has been the guiding question since I began music in 1999 - sometimes it has been subtle, simply looking for improvement in my own music, other times it has been aggressive, like the 2007-2012 period, and many times it has been the spirit of explicit investigation - Ideas Original has many such documents - the “genius” document itself, all “axiomatic” pages, “barriers/extremes”, “transfiguration” and “counterintuition”, “turning point”, “supersession”, “higher solution”, “full commitment”, etc. - then all documents were eventually injected with the genius impulse through generalizing them towards their full implications. 
                NS is my current answer to the “genius question”, yet much of the work has yet to be done - the “first options” for reifying a subject, for example, are those contained in “genius process/tasks” - creating gateways, new thought languages, anthological body-of-knowledge around the subject, among many others. NS’s outer shell, or structure, already corresponds to genius principles/criteria.
                The original “genius” document is a continuing collection of notes and observations on “genius”. Genius as I define it is open-ended, unlimited and shape-shifting, so it will never be reached or achieved, much like Socrates’ wisdom, but the pursuance of it and the wielding of its historically-proven patterns, are the ultimate goals of my projects. 
                The “genius question” can be applied to any discipline via “I.O. as approach”
                see: genius document in NS Papers, “blinding genius”, “NS”, “Ideas Original”, “genius process/tasks”, “generalization”, theoretical                                                possibilities”, “gateway theory”, “generalized I.O.”, “I.O. as approach”

geo-historical location (NS):
One of the innovations in the New Style made possible by description - “theoretical possibilities”. It is an extension of the “positions” concept: the obvious fact that objects/events/moments in a piece of music have a  specific/particular “location” or “position” within that composition and thus within time. Similarly, a piece of music could exist in a particular place - wherever it is played in live performance, where it was initially recorded - and a particular time - the time of its conception, publishing, performance, etc.
                = three “dimensions” - position within the composition, place and time.
                Theoretical possibilities, made possible by “theoretical composition” and description, expands these dimensions to their natural implications - position/place are combined and now can mean any place - and when “time” is similarly expanded, any place in history = thus “geo-historical location”. We end up with a conception of a piece of music as an webbed combination of musical events that could each be located anywhere in space-time, and probably into other realms as well (see “BPC”).
                This is especially important to NS’s strategy to reify/symbolize a subject - we can now describe a moment of music as “played in a location relevant to the subject”. This aligns with “moment theory”, that says music can be more potent when joined with real-life, “living”, and context.
                see: “theoretical composition”, “description”, “theoretical possibilities”, “barriers/extremes”, “NS”, “reification”

gestalt (as goal):
The ideal of combinatorics becoming invisible, and intangibly combining all parameters into a gestalt. This is significant because a work has the most meaning as a totality, whereas looking at a work in terms of a certain parameter can feel empty - and in reality, no single aspect of music (rhythm, lyric or harmony, for example) shoulders all the burden of meaning simultaneously, but a composer who is, for instance, choosing a rhythm for a composition, may place too large a burden of significance on it, unable to get past its lack of meaning to see the whole.
                see: “combinatorics”, “choice”, “development”, “exorcising the arbitrary”

Glorious Days:
A named personal aesthetic, initially derived from a large assemblage of pieces I play in summer weather, all of which have uniting traits. The associated hazy, nostalgic and “glorious” mental space is known as “Glorious Days”, it contains some features of the “Beauty of Life” aesthetic and is a summer analogue to the nocturnal ‘Belle Époque’. It is the first large section of my visit to Naples in Fall 2009, where the I revisited places from my childhood. ‘GD’ has been built into a full collection of associated imagery, harmonies, words, and axioms.
                see: “beauty of life” aesthetic, “Belle Epoque” aesthetic, “death domain”, “Naples 2009-2010 visit”

graphic profile:
The audio profile of a composition as seen/presented graphically (for example a screenshot image of a waveform). Having a graphic representation of a composition is significant: sketching is a means of description, the image allows one to see the whole composition at once, thus useful as a means of analysis and one can take notes around it. Many H700 works (NS preliminary ideas) exist in sketch form, and many NS reifications will utilize graphics as their primary description strategy.
                see: “description”, “H700”

gratifying extensions (melody):
A melodic phenomenon described in Ideas Original - the reinterpretation of a previously stated motif or melody, often from a triadic note to a note in the chord extension (esp. 7th and 9th) - usually in chords like maj7/9, m7/9, and 9sus4. This term was derived as part of my initiative to name as many melodic phenomena/objects as possible. This can be done in composition or by an improvising soloist who wants to inject more emotion into the existing melody.

The H700 is a collection of works conceptualized during the New Style period, mostly in the form of description and sketches. The name is derived from a rough/heuristic measure of productivity/fluency for NS at the outset, to match Haydn’s output (700 works = Haydn-700 = H700). As one of the three primary developers of classicism, with Mozart and Beethoven), to me he became a symbol of the ability to compose a large output through developing a musical language. In The Classical Style, Charles Rosen explains how miraculous classicism was - the ability of the language to “sweep through” all forms of music (symphony, opera, variation, etc.) and be functionally reliable and protean enough to produce numerous high-quality works.
                see: “NS”, “nature style”, “radicality spectrum”, “axiom”, “tower, wedge”

harmonic nature: The nature of the harmonic vocabulary, progression or moment. The “nature” contains emotion and character, the semantic meaning (dissonance vs. consonance for example), the historic significance, any innovations, approach (see: “veiling”, “intellectual counterpoint”) etc.
                see: “harmonic vocabulary, language”

harmonic referent:
An (experimental) structural possibility for a reification in NS - because reification objects are to be described, they have to option to deconstruct the aspects of music that traditionally work simultaneously and inseparably. Here, the object is detached from its harmony, leaving it free to describe/designate its “harmonic nature” from a single progression or set (and its specific emotional or semantic significance). This is analogous to the abstracted emotion seen in Mark Rothko’s paintings, and assumes emotion or character can be reliably generalized from a single progression - which I think it can. This is especially useful if a specific progression symbolizes a place or time but similar progressions or  a parent vocabulary would dilute that sense undesirably (as in my autobiographical works). This purpose could peripherally relate to a “looping” strategy in genre music.
                The task for any reification following this highly abstracted strategy would be to design and find its “harmonic referents”.
                see: “description”, “theoretical possibilities”, “musical material”, “harmonic vocabulary/language”

harmonic vocabulary, language: The nature of the harmony used in a work, seen as a collection/description of its features, approach, chord types, etc. It can be observed in retrospect or designed in advance, extrapolated from a single chord or used as criteria for inclusion/use. A key part of “language objectives” (the full parameter list of musical language). I have parsed chord progressions into many “harmonic vocabularies” judging their appropriateness in various ways: my own ear/subjective judgment, historical factors, objective features of the harmonic object, etc.
                see: “harmonic nature”, “language objectives”, “chord progression zones”, etc.

harmonic/chord scaffolding: As most melodies imply harmony, most ‘great’ melodies were conceived in light of harmonic logic, and even much counterpoint follows a harmonic schema - it is beneficial to a composer to create a ‘scaffolding’ or sketch of the harmonic progression and then “etch” the melody or counterpoint into the within harmonic context. Canons are efficiently composed this way, polyphony can be guided this way. It is also a way to “measure” the amount of deviation from the tonal frame (chromaticism), and a more sophisticated application presents itself in veiling - several layers of harmonic scaffolds, creating “shadow” melodies and counterpoint under/over each other (at various volumes), each created with a different scaffold or “harmonic law”.
                see: “harmonic vocabulary, language”

higher solution: This concept and prompt list reminds the composer that there are many solutions that supersede “from scratch” conceptualizing and composition.“Higher solution” resists “low-level” invention, and also has to do with the opportunity cost of time. For example, before a lyricist or playwright reaches into the vague-universal to try to find a subject, he could look into his own life first (down to specific names and events), or watch the news, or adapt an existing work for a new medium. Before a composer writes a random melody, he could begin from description and leave the detail for last, could benchmark or quote, develop a personal melody he already has. A composer could design a language - then many lower-level decisions are already made. NS uses reification as the guide for most compositional decisions. Creation from scratch can be nebulous and result in “choice-related” blocks - “higher solution” looks to find better solutions to common problems of creativity.
                see: “problem context”, “tonal solutions”, “choice problem”, “full commitment”, “Ideas Original”.

A melodic/orchestration device: a single, sustained note in a high range - often used in orchestration or SM’s. This term was derived as part of my initiative to name as many melodic phenomena/objects as possible.

historic personal material:
The approach of treating the history of your own musical material as a microcosm of the overall history of music. This gives your own motifs more significance - breaking the “choice problem” by lending your certain pieces of musical material precedence over others, esp. the vast amount of objective possibilities. I have the future goal, for example, to shed any benchmarks and be surrounded only with my own musical material, able to be used, developed and manipulated at any time, and each significant because of its association to life-memory or a work it was previously used in.  
                see: “higher solution”, “choice problem”, “developing variation”, “personal language”

holistic analysis:
Similar to the way “gestalt” aspires for combinatorics to become invisible and to be able see the piece of music as a whole, “holistic analysis” aspires to describe and analyze music using intangible understanding of all parameters - a holistic approach, with no method of description off-limits. Different pieces of music demand to be understood in different ways - harmonic analysis might be essential in a song but reductionist in counterpoint. An entirely music-based analysis of an opera or a Sondheim musical misses a great deal of conceptual integration between compositional logic and stage action. More generally, holism is a reaction against Ideas Original - realizing that anthologically listing phenomena is beneficial, and optimizing each is important, but integration of all these phenomena is the difficult thing, and the most important.
                see: “organic domain, holistic field”, “gestalt”, “audio-in-time”

holistic axiom: Axiom when pervasive: as a texture or constant feature of a composition. A minimalist work that repeats and developss a similar pattern through the whole work, a sonorist piece with single texture, an H700 work or nature style piece, a fugue that has a consistent contrapuntal texture. Versus recurring axiom, where the axiomatic feature is divided by other content.
                see: “axiom”, “diversified monochromaticism”, “aggregate collage”

holistic form (NS):
The collection of ways the New Style universe can be presented or organized (or can organize itself) in total. Possibilities include spatial, linear, and over time. Level of complexity and type of media/description strategy are also factors.
                see: “NS”, “theoretical possibilities”

holistic reification:
Whether a reification aspires to represent its subject in totality or only in a certain respect: in total metaphor, a metaphor of all aspects of something, or partial metaphor - one or some aspects. This poses many threats - having to represent all aspects of something means that a minimalist symbol could only be thought of as “reductionist” vs. “iconic”, almost any piece of music would fall short of the ability to holistically represent all aspects of something, and many parts would clash in opinion or strategy. For example, one could represent the big bang with an expanding sound mass, not because the big bang made sound (science thinks it was soundless) but because sound is used here as “space/size”, and the expansion of the big bang is the aspect of the big bang that is being symbolized.
                NS addresses the ‘holistic vs. partial’ dichotomy with the body of knowledge, which keeps most information at a subsidiary distance “behind”/“around” the actual object, and through variation orientation, where multiple reifications of the same topic supplement, interact and contradict/argue with each other - a “philosophical discourse” on the subject. Both of these are part of the “IP” or ‘intellectual package’ - representing the thought-space around any subject in the world.
                see: “reification”, “NS”, “partial reification”, “body of knowledge”, “variation orientation”

human style: The issue of how  to represent humans in the New Style and in other places/projects - an essential and sticky issue for several reasons: The New Style objective was to be free of “genre”, but how could humans be symbolized without genre? It seems pretentious to symbolize humanity in general with a “style”, when humans are representing themselves continuously with styles of infinite variety, that if NS delves into human properties of music, others have already been there and done it “better” (more authentically, “got there first” etc.) - vs. endless pastiche and half-hearted simulations of past/current styles. Finally, abstracting humans would feel reductionist and is not the best application of abstraction in NS, which is much better suited to universal, objective, natural phenomena and concepts.
                The efforts to solve these problems are encouraging: the disparate “mature style”, collage, “intellectual counterpoint” for human-like goals, tone-editing NS with human voices (re-orchestrating it in voice timbres), the humor context itself (humor as distinct to humans), certain “acts of description” where humans can even supersede universal-scale phenomena, the “beauty of life” aesthetic, and the personal language at “the core” of NS - my personal language, representing the individual. There will be many more strategies, acting in concert to effectively and sincerely represent humanity.
                see: “NS”, “reification”, “personal language”, “disparate-dramatic music”, “human universals”, “100 problems of music”, “tone-edit”
                                “humor context” etc.

human universals: A result of the August 2011 philosophy work, “human universals” is a partial answer to the question “how much of the future can we predict?” Both profound and obvious, the timeless aspects of human beings - their needs and wants, their traits and tendencies, their ideals and flaws, underlie all of human history, and will continue to - the human aspect of history is indeed cyclic, and each generation experiences them and in some ways wants the right to. The overt technological and scientific progress we see today is in some ways a non-sequitur to humanity -  they may exaggerate or reduce a certain human universal within an era, positive or negative. The particular valences of each of the universals at the time create the ‘flavor’ of the age. The HU investigation also contributed to the “genius” investigation (processes/tasks) - that significantly modifying, eliminating or introducing an HU would fundamentally change the otherwise incremental nature of history and would be highly genius (though potentially destabilizing and dangerous - see “hypothetical innovations”.
                The list itself is incomplete - “human nature”, of course, is up for debate, but I consider them as “generally true”.
                see: “first man”, “human style”, “hypothetical innovations”, “genius”, “genius process/tasks”, “gateway theory”

humor context: Applying the perspective of humor to everything, a comic filter - humor’s approach reinterprets its target: it can parody it, reveal truth or lie within it, render it impotent, destroy or supersede it, reduce it to the point of absurdity, distort, exaggerate or exalt it, misinterpret it, and much more. Humor has infinite manifestations. It is the sharpest of the “counterintuition” inclinations and is essential to the New Style: it possesses some of  the most overarching power in NS -  the power to reinterpret the entirety of the NS universe, using its unique set of strategies.
                It functions on many levels:
                                - a near-mandatory variation task in IP - to humble a (self-)serious work through parody (in variation and holistically)
                                - to question and dissect an asserted perspective/opinion of a reification (usually in the variation set and in tone-edits)
                                                (thus a safeguard against “assertion”, distinguishing it from the vast majority of art (which use unqualified assertion)
                                - as some of the sharpest exhibitions of genius and conceptualization
                                - an NS domain where everything is reinterpreted through humorous perspectives (both benign and ruthless)
                                - a holistic tone-edit, refracting NS in its entirety, even questioning its basic premises and goals.
                                                (a safeguard against the high potential for pretentiousness in NS, the “genius” goals etc.)
                                - a philosophical concept, closely related to Socratic doubt and dissection, superseding “reality 1”
                The humor context is also an important episode in the Naples Fall 2009 visit, a brief period where I began to see humor in everything, “disarming” my environment (though it is ephemeral - I could not maintain it).
                see: “humor refraction”, “tone-edit”, refraction”, “counterintuition”.

humor refraction:
Reinterpretation of something with humorous perspective(s), usually a musical object with or without semantic content.
“Refracting” the world through a humorous mind - a comedian, satirist, caricaturist, wit, critic etc.
                see: “humor context”, “tone-edit”

hypothetical innovations:
Part of “first man”/future-based investigations - the question of how ancient man could have hypothetically foreseen today, and the desire to see the future past incremental steps - not necessarily the future that will happen (I make no pretense at accuracy), but could happen - thus  breaking constraints of my fixed lifespan (“the progress I will see during my lifetime”).
                This line of thought resulted in a list of ideas - some 1000+ year propositions, thus proportional to someone in the middle ages foreseeing today. They are deliberately general and universal, so as to not be mired in the myopia that could result from simply “extending” certain current technology. The ideas can be reverse-engineered and/or developed regardless of correspondence to reality1, and some seem to be of an ‘absolute genius’-eque subset - those that modify HU’s and environmental givens.
                see: “genius”, “first man on earth”, “barriers/extremes”, “reality 1”/“BPC”

I.O. as approach
(process): Defining Ideas Original as an approach - its history and inclinations, distilling it to a neutral format for application to any area of knowledge. Ideas Original, being a relatively complete exposition of a discipline, can be used as a blueprint to analyze and advance any discipline -  a surprising number of musical principles are able to be generalized to all disciples - development processes, systematically “exposing out” the subject by naming and creating lists of aspects, the predictable arrival at certain philosophical and physical problems, generating a list of “high” principles at the outset to learn from, the move from learning to theorizing, from the subject to the interdisciplinary etc. This doesn’t imply “shortcuts” as traditionally defined, but does provide direction (thus efficiency) when learning a new subject.
                see: “Ideas Original”, “generalized I.O.”

I.O. hermeneutics:
The art of interpreting my concepts correctly - primarily the need for me to do so. For NS, it is important that it stay “grounded” in the initial Ideas Original theories, because otherwise it will seem arbitrary and will be vulnerable to subtle distortions of its various intents - the intents delineated with such careful detail on the 1st page of most I.O. documents, throughout them, and in the Aesthetic documents and in Chronicles. Whenever wielding NS, I have a burden of “I.O. hermeneutics” - to see NS in light of its origins, inspirations and contexts. The same goes for any other uses of the Ideas Original theories.
                see: “Ideas Original”, “I.O. as Approach”

idea development/“point”: A document, analogous to developing variation in music, where one explores an idea (the “motif” in this case would be a question, topic or subject) based on predetermined prompts. The objective is to “expose out” the idea as rigorously as possible - to foresee all angles of argument (“points”), subtopics, and generally to sharpen thought through systemizing it. This is especially important in reification, where my logic in converting a subject/idea into musical symbol is under scrutiny - the credibility and “genius” quality of NS depends on the quality of its conceptualization.
                This document overlaps with research and investigation processes prescribed in Ideas Original and “genius processes/tasks”.
                see: “Ideas Original”, “prompt-based architecture”, “developing variation”

idea types:
Also called “general form”, asking “what forms do ideas come in?”, this is a inventory of the many forms an idea/concept is/can be presented in (medium, sequence, approach, conventions of a discipline). This envisions a process of conversion from an idea/concept into a “form” - and that the idea can be expressed in many different forms, and some will be “optimum” or at least “more appropriate/applicable”.
                For example, a political opinion can be presented in a book, newspaper editorial, TV ad or advertisement, campaign speech, movie plot, debate, blog-comment argument, dissertation, statistical chart, logo on a billboard or T-shirt, or in satire. How the idea is presented optimizes certain aspects of the idea. This also relates to the idea web - the “multiplicity of things” (put objectively) - the uses, presentations, interpretations.
                In NS, a music-based system, “general form” opens music to the possibilities of any form from any discipline/medium - and not only the structure but the orientation/approach. It is a basic strategy in the creation of symbolic objects.
                see: “general form”, “reification”, “idea development”, “dramatic conversion”, “theoretical possibilities”, “explicit form”

idea web:
A concept describing the interrelatedness and complexity seen in “the world” as such. It is a cornerstone of POTU(G), the research project that accompanies the New Style. It owes some to Burke’s Connections documentaries, but is more derived from my general sense of wonder at the myriad uses, references and perspectives surrounding a “thing”, and how these seemingly infinite “things” interact, each carrying with it a ‘package’ of associations from millions of different perspectives. The world is not just a web of physically interacting forces and objects - it is our ideas about them, and uses for them, plus the things we create that reference them. We also reference ideas in ideas, create ideas and things in abstract, we develop/discover entire ideologies and disciplines that reinterpret sets of what already exists, using thousands of  “idea forms”. It is a miraculous, multilayered, complex process.
                Perhaps the highest goal of NS is to mirror this set of processes - when creating a reification, the prompt-based architecture is designed to mimic the unforeseeable flexibility of invention and discovery - a reification has no hard-and-fast restrictions on what it can be. Then, the ‘body of knowledge’ (attached to’/“around” the reif) represents all the information/reference/knowledge relevant to the reification. The variation set interprets the object from many perspectives and uses it in new ways (see “variation tasks”), while the ‘language exposition’ codifies and explores the object by exhibiting its “language” in use - applying its perspective to other objects and disciplines (further codifying the language). A “tone-edit” is like a single ideology “smoothing” disparate objects of the world through providing a coherent explanation, or like art representing the world through a unified aesthetic. More layers of interaction create NS’s “complex domain”. NS can transcend this interaction, but will ultimately be ‘pulled back’ by conflicting viewpoints/contexts (see “barriers” (philosophical)).
                see: “POTU(G)”, “complex systems”, “multiplicity/duplicity”, “NS”, “idea types/general form”, “complex domain”, “barriers”, “humor                      context”, etc.

Ideas Original: The general title for the collection of my theories and notes, esp. on music - named (optimistically) “Ideas Original” to do justice to its ultimate objectives, which are ‘genius in music’, and eventually genius in general. It was guided by the “what is genius in music?” question, gradually branched out to drama, philosophy, “thought”, and eventually codified into an approach that can apply to all disciplines (“I.O. as approach”).
                Ideas Original documents have several approaches - they suggest ideas through prompts and through lists of parameters/possibilities. They began in 2007 with basic investigation-lists of music’s aspects (melody, rhythm, harmony, concept, form), then soon evolved into documents with an original theory in the heading - with the rest of the document dedicated to a semi-exhaustive list of examples of the phenomenon. Eventually I “generalized” each document (see “I.O. generalization”) to be truly comprehensive.
               The New Style is the product of Ideas Original and its body of theory.
                There are currently around 200 documents in Ideas Original, excluding specific work on the New Style and autobiographical pieces
                                + Aesthetics series, Aesthetic Dictionary and POM
(Portrait of Music, the music history and normative theory project)
                Concepts/Theories in Ideas Original include: principles, objective principles, aesthetic benchmarking, specific aesthetics, ambiguity theory, axiom, barriers/extremes, specific morphology, character/shining character, EFT (emotion/effect thesis), levels of obviousness/indirectness, counterintuition/transfiguration, appropriation objects, stock modifications, description, justification, positions, general form/idea types, preparatory theory, supersession theory, turning point, full commitment, genius, thought languages, higher solution, holistic field, human universals, humor context, idea web, 100 problems of music, listening requirements, imagination springboard, explicit form, phrase rightness, task-based composing, metaphoric distancing, objective modifications, introverted transfiguration, treatment/ensemble design, organic domain grammar, performance amplification, problem orientation, periphery, reification strategies, rhythmic thesis, social dynamics, strange poetry, vocal collage, genius in song, artist reaction, total connectivity, theoretical possibilities, tonal solutions, poetic conversion, (artist) worldview, and more

                Other lists include: comprehensive philosophy, invention matrix, sound, chord progressions, verbs, adjectives, settings, plot frames,
plot points, axiomatic dialogue, axiomatic storytelling, cinematography, icons, key, length of historic works, literary devices, development matrix, phrase rightness, materials/tools, melody (archetypal), detail inventory, modern devices, range chart, performance, postproduction/EQ, programmatic ideas, real-life ideas, impossible objects, axiomatic rhythm, phrase, meter, rhythmic ideas, scale chart, soloist, bass, symbolism, weight/dynamics, word list 1 and 2, and more

                Processes include: idea development, development matrix, conductor process, chord progression development, concept process, movie score, music criticism, play, rendering - video, rendering - VST, notation, drum process, rhythmic development, song, piano


identity pluralism:
The result of applying barrier theory, “beyond problem context”, and the choice problem to human identity. Humans are limited and restricted in many ways by their singular identity in ‘reality 1’, physical reality. Though, like “100 problems”, we find ways to explore different sides and potentialities of our personality, many states of being are unable to be experienced, potential in certain areas is unable to be explored sufficiently or actualized, we are unable to escape our limitations….plainly, at many levels we can’t be who we want or do what we want. “Identity pluralism”, then, is an attempt within creative philosophy to “break” this problem - imagining identity in multiplicity, analogous to the many axioms of music, mental states of art or roles of an actor - a trait of hypothetical ‘universal’ genius.
                see: “100 problems of existence”, “existentialism”, “Naples 2009-2010 visit”.  

idiosyncratic process: Designing an idiosyncratic process to gain a unique result - here, rather than the product being the focus, the process is the focus, with the idea that, if the process is original, it should result in a unique product (“product” being a musical composition, concept, invention, etc.). The composer can undertake a period of speculation about process, and then invents resources that will shape the work. This underlines the “open-ended” and investigatory process I plan to undertake going forward.

imagination springboard:
“Aesthetic benchmarking” taken a step further, using the “+” sign to combine works - based on the observation that new works often seem like rough combinations of existing pieces (and can be described in those terms) - it is a rough heuristic, but good enough to steer the composer in a certain direction. One can also use it to “foresee” future works, styles/aesthetics, languages, and is a great brainstorming technique. For example, one could have “objectively” foreseen a primary feature of Varese using “Rite of Spring + percussion.”, or Sondheim’s A Little Night Music with “Ravel Valse Sentimentales + Broadway musical”
                A hidden aspect to imagination springboard is its efficiency - by just naming a certain work, you inadvertently imply (and wield) 100’s of parameters.
                see: “aesthetic benchmarking”, “objective modifications”, “specific aesthetics”, “audio benchmarks”

impossible objects:
A practical, orchestration-based list of the musical articulations or instrument timbres I cannot currently render. This was done in 2008, when I was struggling with purely computerized, “virtual instrument” (VST) composition, whose resources were falling short versus my benchmarks and objective goals in the sound/rendered domain. Though less of a problem as described projects like NS have come to the forefront, and musicianship and conceptual strength shifted the burden from timbre, it is still relevant, esp. in “100 problems” - see “choice problem” - the composer, in one way or another, is always limited by his resources. Not having access to human voice is an especially large gap, because it is a central feature of so much miraculous music, and because of its ability to deliver added semantics through lyric.
                see: “100 problems of music”, “choice problem”, “rendered”, “description”, “introverted transfiguration”, “vocal surrogate”

indefinite extension/fluency:
The ideal of complete fluency of musical law/language, with consistent tone - like speaking fluently, the amount of speech the speaker can produce is functionally unlimited, all within the rules of that language. When applied to a genius musical language, part of genius is fluency and “exhibition of a language” in as many contexts as possible - see: idea plurality, extent/amount - past arbitrary or accidental greatness into full command of the music - the features, inclusion and exclusion: a sense/tolerance for what choices are “related” enough to include, the melodic and harmonic sound, structure at every level. This is seen in the holistic body of work of most great composers - and within works of great scale, whose execution isn’t possible without this intangible consistency and fluency - opera, film, symphony, absolute music.     
                see: “genius”, “language parameters”

independent standards/“toughest critic”:
A list of criteria derived from my study of critics and critical vernacular, most of it in the “100 problems” context - from it I derived “independent standards” that will allow an artist to evaluate himself without the involvement of others - to align and correct judgment/critical sense. It is a compendium of critical recommendation and describes the tendency of critics - thus not as rigorous as some of the Ideas Original standards in Principles and ‘100 Problems’ but more practical and sociological/cultural. They are beneficial in that they represent high expectations in many cases and audience norms in others. They don’t have to be followed: they are “norms to go with or against”, serving as  “defaults” until legitimate reasons to rebel are formulated (because, ass outlined so strongly in “full commitment”, going against a norm is often a gateway to a radical work or language).
                see: “100 problems of music”, “full commitment”, "principles"

independently updatable module (for HTML org):
The use of HTML and web design in planning and composing my work is something I’ve been exploring since 2010 - it ended up transmuting into “dummy file” folder organization (like an “HTML-lite”) - but the main utility of either is the shortcut/hyperlink. I need a work process where each reification can have all Ideas Original lists at its disposal (for crosschecking/brainstorming), and the reifications themselves also need to refer to one another - but there can’t be multiple versions existing simultaneously or NS will become unnecessarily convoluted. So, the shortcut/link allows all the lists and objects to remain autonomous in a single/central location, centrally updatable - if I need to, for example, add a prompt to an Ideas Original document, add to the “theoretical possibility” list or modify a reification.
                see: “dummy file”

Frequently used in combination with “levels of obviousness”, indirectness is an observation of the spectrum of relatedness that music can have to task, scene or situation and the effects this can create  - when writing a song for a movie, for example, many songwriters immediately assume they need to incorporate the name of the movie in the song, when in fact, music with little or no semantic relationship at all to the scene, even from a different historical period or culture, can have the desired effect.
                The principle here is that there is no substitute for the rote process of auditioning a piece of music or aesthetic against the task at hand - the same idea behind “aesthetic benchmarking” and many of the emotion/tone-based concepts in I.O.. A very indirect, tangential and counterintuitive relationship may be perfect: poignant, smarter, ironic, comic, etc. This applies to music vs. text, in NS it is relevant to subject vs. reification and reification vs. its harmonic language or mental space, music vs. imagery.
                see: "task-based composing", “aesthetic benchmarking”, “EFT”, “shining character”, “counterintuition”, “transfiguration”

A normative goal of music - especially present in the transition languages like classicism and song. It is singularly exalted in Beethoven and the ideal of “long-line” - subsuming individual objects into a functional and causal chain (popularized by Leonard Bernstein). Practically/technically and philosophically, inevitability-as-goal gives each object a reason to exist beyond its assertion in the specific moment, and gives reason for the composition to continue - seen in the I.O. concepts of supersession and turning point, where continuation is predicated on superseding the current moment/object, broadening the listener’s expectations, and shifting the importance of the work to the end.
                Total connectivity (accountability in composition) stipulates that there must be a reason for the composition to continue - there are many ways to set up such a situation: a conflict that must be resolved, material that must be explored, a plot that must play itself out, entropy that must destroy itself, the exhibition of a logical process of causality. The concept of “position” says that the same object at a different temporal position isn’t really the same object…
                This expectation of continuity is broken in mature style, in the collage style it’s followed as consistently as the material follows it, in transition languages it’s the prime objective, while an unbroken, inevitable process is essential in the nature style and many of the H700 objects.
                see: “long line”, “supersession”, “position”, “turning point”, “total connectivity”

intellectual counterpoint:
As opposed to dry/textural counterpoint done for effect, intellectual counterpoint strives to achieve true semantic possibility, encoding and communication of ideas through the interaction of voices. Music indeed has the power to objectively communicate information, but it needs a rich and formalized language to do so: counterpoint between audible, distinguishable voices - and then one must know how to “read it”. Intellectual counterpoint is one of two main axioms in the New Style (alongside collage) - designed to maintain continuity of contrapuntal mastery (middle ages > madrigals > Palestrina > Bach > Grosse/Hammerklavier > Salome > Carter/Boulez, etc.), “grounding NS” in each domain, and functioning as an objective messenger of information about the subject. The more explicit legitimizes the decisions made within the counterpoint.
                While the ideal ensemble range is of duo/trio/quartet/octet-size, it has been extended to “group processes” of 100 voices or more, allowing for more reification potential, information and effect.
                see: “semantic content”, “organic domain grammar”, “strange poetry”, “social processes”, “dry counterpoint”

introverted transfiguration:
Inward strategies for transfiguring material, away from the form-and-event-related prescriptions in the general transfiguration document, toward detail - properties of timbre (voice and instrument), musician-derived micro-articulation (often personal), rubato, phrasing, diction, accent, timing, and other subtle effects. A subcategory of transfiguration.
                see: “transfiguration”, “stock modifications”, “unique timbre”

invention matrix:
Prompt-based, parameters designed to inspire new inventions, analogous to the ‘development matrix’ prompts for music. One can combine parameters, juxtapose them against a current or ubiquitous product, or against a need/want. Part of the “I.O. as approach” applied to disciplines and endeavors outside music. Current and future parameters take precedence.
                see: “I.O. as approach”, “development matrix”, “prompt-based architecture”

involuntary emotion-space:
The concept that music inevitably creates its own ‘mental space’, that can include very specific references to time and place. It is a counterargument against music being a combination of largely objective parameters: tweak one aspect of the music, especially the harmony, and it may suggest a new ‘place’. Harmony is the biggest contributing factor: “harmony is memory, place” - of great importance to the autobiographical pieces and the ‘Glorious Days’ and ‘Belle’ aesthetics, both reliant on suggesting/resurrecting very specific places
                see: "mental space", “harmonic vocabulary", "harmonic referent", “EFT”, “shining character”, “Naples 2009-2010 visit”,. “Belle Époque”,
                                “Glorious Days”, etc.                

IP, intellectual package (NS):
The ‘intellectual package’ is a overarching name for a collection of features surrounding/concerning the reification object - ultimately freeform, prompt-based and supplementary, but heuristically containing: the object’s ‘body of knowledge’, the exposition of the object’s language, and variation set(s). Each subject will have many interacting objects reifying it, and the IP applies to each object.
                The IP creates greater complexity than musical paradigm of ‘plain-assertion’: reflective of the New Style’s ambition to represent the world of music, the world outside of music (‘philosopher-in-music’, etc.), and ultimately new worlds. The ‘package’ is a collection of already exists around - but apart from - the initial reification: it includes variations on the initial reification (“criticizing” the object from the POV of different languages/ideologies) and an exposition of the initial reification’s language (the “language exposition”, appropriating objects from other language to formalize the grammar). Finally, I decided that through another such feature “behind” or “near” the reification object - what I call its ‘body of knowledge’ - the  reification wouldn’t have to present all its information in its artistic appearance, but, like many other works of art, it would be surrounded by the information that precipitated it. A more intelligent and complete picture of the object - the many discourses surrounding it, “due diligence”, explanation/codification, the relatedness, the scrutiny and criticism, the development - IP as “real world” responses - academia, humorists, critics, pundits, other composers, music itself.
                IP, then, possesses its own tool set that can be customized to tackle the specific aspects of a certain reification, as long as it maintains the same spirit and intent. One of the main reasons IP is ‘open-ended’ is because the reification itself could be a variation set or language exposition . (for instance nature style specimens) - then the IP would have to adjust accordingly, pivoting to provide the “fullness” described above.
                see: “NS”, “theoretical possibilities”, “body of knowledge”, “deep generation concept (BOK)”,  “IP”, “language exposition”,
                                “variation set”, “assertion”, etc.

irreducible complexity:
A goal of my aesthetic and thought: holism and complex systems/systems thinking, anti-reductionist. Aside from deliberate use of minimalism in some forms (object, symbol, aphorism), which is always understood to be accompanied by a detailed ‘body of knowledge’, real or implied, I treat reductionism with unease, especially philosophically. ‘Discipline’ is a mirage, as “interdisciplinary is a fact”,  Joyce exposes the “poverty of directness” by his use of the genius trait “overinclusiveness”, and ultimately the “complex system is the most honest way to see the world”.
                The concept is also derived from politics, religion and other subjective ideologies that use reductionism shamelessly to present the world as deceptively simple, creating rigid and childlike simplifications that misrepresent the subtlety and richness of the world and the difficulty and ambiguity inherent in problems and issues. In that sense ‘irreducible complexity’ is polemic and antidote, Socratic - which is life blood in NS - its internal discourses, flux, variation orientation, constant combinatorics and development, humor context (etc.) and due to reification, NS is simultaneously/equally addressing music and the world around it. In presenting and explaining the New Style, the first approach should be one of irreducible complexity - show the work in its entirety, in its most truthful form.
                see: “complex system”, “zero-truth”, “reification”, “anti-approximation”, “poverty of directness”

jewel chord:
Rolled chord, can be part of a shimmer axiom. “Jewelling” block chords is also a detail-level transfiguration strategy.
                see: “axiom: shimmer”, "introverted transfiguration"

Joycean embeds:
A conception of form - the simultaneous existence of a linear plot and expansions/digressions from aspects/ideas/objects in the plot. This is the archetype that the pieces developed from autobiographical events follow. It is a manifestation of the interrelatedness and multiplicity in the idea web. One can visualize the plot, then, with everything as “expandable/collapsible” - with everything collapsed or ‘hidden’, the audience would only see a linear plot - yet the plot is simply a skeleton to be hung with exploration, allusion, history, alternate versions of events, refractions from different perspectives (humor, for instance), even musical procedures like development and variation, abstraction, etc. etc. etc. - these are the ‘expandable’ features of the Joycean drama.
                Musically, ‘embeds’ can be seen in the same way - music like a labyrinth with many layers of depth (see Boulez), tangents, expansions pivoting off of a certain point, and simultaneous orientations (for example emotional and intellectual)
                see: “Joycean, music”, “embeds”, “periphery”, “idea web”, “refractions”

Joycean (music):
A conversion of the aesthetic of James Joyce into music. Since I delved into his work, his two novels, particularly Ulysses, have become benchmarks for music - and a high standard, because music is an ambiguous often nebulous medium whereas Joyce is one of the most semantically-based, specific writers in history - also anthologically diverse stylistically, highly inclusive, referential. I have written that his writing style implies “knowledge of everything as default”, the universal genius. In many ways this is true, in other ways I have generalized his features and exalted him to archetype for my own purposes.
                The “mature style” is one answer to Joyce, collage is another: both can only be achieved after the musical material used is “hallowed” enough with its own “body of knowledge” to be recognizable and packed with semantic value. Joycean tangents can be achieved by form layers, pan-field, alternate versions, “Joycean embeds” (see above), Joyce’s portmanteau can be approached with motif + permutations/development/combinatorics, semantics can be built by giving more parameters of music definite symbolic meaning (note, key, chord, etc.), his experiments with historical pastiche can be directly converted using historic genre styles and quotes, and my own languages like intellectual counterpoint can provide much of the rest, or collage with its potential to superimpose.  
                The leitmotivic richness of Salome has become one hypothetical realization of Joyce: The way objects are juxtaposed, layered, combined, transformed = semantic meaning (dev var implication), and is similar to serialism in its demand on the listener to extract information from the music.
                The autobiographical pieces are target vehicles for Joycean music, but it is also a reification strategy with high potential, so will be used in many symbolic objects. “Reification equivalencies/analogues” has outlined hundreds of symbolic parallels between music and real-world semantic meaning.
                see: “Joycean embeds”, “periphery”, “collage”, “mature style”, “Naples 2009-2010 visit”, “idea web”, “semantic content”, “harmonic referent”, “leitmotivic classes”

Justification is a higher standard for melody, object and music creation - that choices should be able to be explained and ‘justified’ in relation to some task or rationale - such as symbolic representation, emotion-effect with audience in mind, intellectual counterpoint grammar, etc.
                Justification represents a “higher solution” in comparison to arbitrary or ‘from-scratch’ composition (see: “higher solution”). The features of the greatest pieces of music and styles/languages can often be explained in relation to some function or reason (see: musicology), and this can be reverse-engineered to become a process-step/objective.
                Reification, a scientific term analogous to symbolism, aspires to represent ideas and things from the real-world, in order to address them in a musical philosophy (NS) - it must justify based on a strategy to represent its subject. EFT, effect-function, aspires to create a specific emotion/effect in relation to the audience. Intellectual counterpoint aims to communicate idea and dialogue through interaction of voices. Any genre with an extramusical component, such as movie soundtracks, musicals or opera, pop song to oratorio, are inextricably linked to the task of “setting” the drama and text to music. Concepts and resources like “EFT-PMF”, adjective/verb lists, “programmatic ideas”, justification, “shining character” were all created with ‘ideal melody’ in mind
                Not only does this break the “choice problem” by lending context to the choice, justification often results in better or more unique solutions. Think of all the iconic soundtrack themes that wouldn’t exist without having to mimic a specific action or aspect of the plot (“Jaws”) (the same impulse behind the programmatic symphony (= “Zarathustra’s sunrise)), the intricate Sondheim songs that would have never existed without a plot, or more generally, all the cantatas/masses and symphonies that wouldn’t have the same features if their creators didn’t explicitly aspire to exhibit/imbue sacred or enlightenment values, and dance genres throughout history without the physical act….
                see: “reification”, “task-based composing”, “higher solution”, “choice problem”, “emotion-effect thesis”, “EFT-PMF”

language exposition:
The ideal for the New Style is that each reification object is unique and substantial enough to possess its own “language”:
“new languages should abound…The objects themselves each imply a language, a mode of thinking/being, a “space” that can be explained theoretically (generalized)”. A great work often introduces or actualizes a new language, and in historical/long perspective, a new language means more than another exhibition of an existing one.
                The language is defined as: first, the ideology or approach of the object and its subject, which governs the rest of the parameter choices (see “language objectives” below). Next, the description of the language itself: all the parameter choices and their rationales, invention of new parameter areas, critical discourses, terminology, etc. - see “gateway theory”, also “extreme languages” - using more ‘potential of music’ than usual.
                This is all implied in the initial object, but the “language exposition” takes it a step farther - it will extrapolate the language from the particular object and generalize it. For example, taking the 5th Symphony and generalizing classicism’s principles. Next, the language is explored through further use, “due diligence” through developing variation, shown in many forms and uses - by appropriating other reification objects (possibly criticizing or re-imagining them),  by reinterpreting archetypal or familiar musical events/objects (see “things all languages must have”), by objective developing variation exhibitions, etc.
                The exposition is designed to resemble a suite of abstract art pieces or a collection of a “period” of an artist - different subjects represented with a consistent language, exhibiting the potential for invention, and tolerance for variance within the language.  
                This ‘exposition’ of the reification’s language and the variation set (which refracts the object through other languages and ideologies in a critical dialogue with it) combine to form a whole. The IP is a bit more complex than this, ultimately, as, for example, the reification itself could be the language, wherein the IP would supplement it with the lang exposition showing specific examples of the language in action.
                see: “NS”, “IP, intellectual package”, “language objectives, music”, “body of knowledge”, “variation set”, “theoretical possibilities”,
                                "appropriation objects"

language objectives, music:
An anthological list of the parameters of music and beyond - ‘language’ in all dimensions (music language, thought-language, visual language, emotional language). The composer could then design a language based on his choices at each parameter, including his negation of one/more (see “autistic language”) or addition/invention of one (see “gateway”). In this way, the language parameter list is a formalization of the organic process of musical style creation. The parameters were gleaned during the creation of Ideas Original.
                “Language” is the ideal of composition, either historical/genre languages or personal languages. When looking at a panoramic view of music history, “languages” are continents, able to sustain many works over a long period of time. They are often representative of an ideology or philosophy that reaches beyond music toward all of life (classicism and the enlightenment, for example, or modernism). After my study period, I aimed toward the hypothetical ‘genius’ goal of becoming a “composer of languages rather than single works”, reasoning that a “new language means more than another exhibition of an existing one”. It’s a give-take, though, as languages are codified in individual works, sometimes in single works that act more like anomalies.
                A language can be created from the “top-down”, where philosophical ideas govern the music’s features - even a single “genesis/galvanizing idea”. The NS reification process works this way - the “subject” creates the object/language. A language can be extrapolated from a piece of music/musical material, most likely having to “fill in” many unanswered parameters to create a comprehensive language. The “language exposition” (New Style) takes each reification and codifies it by exhibiting it in a wider range of contexts.
                Within the language objectives, there is a section entitled “Aspects every language should have (or deliberately reject)” - including “potential to handle profound ideas”, “scalability”, “ability to create the full spectrum of emotion”, “complexity”, can “interpret everything through the conventions of the language”, etc. - this is prescriptive and designed, once again, to elevate the language to the functionality of the historically great languages of the past. The “deliberately reject” option refers to the fact that it is consistent with the character of many musical styles not to reach for historical breadth, but to optimize their own particular goals.
                A parameter-based approach has an underrated benefit: it clarifies the differences between languages, shows that you can create new languages very different from one another, with almost no overlap. For example, two “objectively different” languages would have different features at all parameter prompts.
                see: “language exposition”, “autistic languages”, “IP”, “Ideas Original”, “NS”, “gateway theory”, “artist worldview”

large-scale repetition patterns (LSRP):
Events larger than phrase, modularly assembled, implying strings of disparate, mid-scale objects whose inclusion is justified by function. This is especially applicable dramatically - in mixed drama/music works like musicals, organizing “numbers”, smaller modules, dialogue-only and other events without music, etc. This concept is significant because it presents an alternative to traditional prescriptive forms (esp. in song), and opens the door for more interesting use of form that could lead to unique solutions. Finally, detail can be etched into the larger modules, creating even more articulation over an already interesting but solid structure.
                see: “supersession”, “additive phrase”

leitmotivic class:
Hypothesized during Salome analysis, the leitmotivic class is a revolutionary redefinition of musical material - from single motif to a set/class based on a criteria for inclusion. In Salome, it is smarter to think of development in an open-ended, inclusive way - not development from a single set of notes, but as “emotion-spaces” or a group of motifs with similar features, presumably derived from developmental transformations - but unable to tell which was the original or “official” version. Classes are like sets - they contain criteria for inclusion, and reflect how diverse the transformations of leitmotifs can become:               
                - musical material may not utilize the same notes but have the same emotion-type, so it may be included.
                - musical material may not have the same harmony or emotion-type, but be very similar structurally to the other motifs in the class.
                - musical material may use the same symbolic instrument as another leitmotif, this are related.
                - musical material may become joined with another motif in long-line, thus are related.
                - musical material may use the same axiom, thus are united in similarity by behavior or texture, and are included in the same class.
                Thus the language of symbolism and transformation, like in Salome, is very ambiguous and intangible, and can’t always be modeled by the traditional and linear “motif > transformations” concept.
                see: “developing variation”, “combinatorics”, “reification”, “qualia”, “axiom”, “choice problem”

leitmotivic juggling:
or ‘motivic’ juggling, this refers to a process observed in many works created by developing variation, where a motif or phrase (a piece of musical material), usually several, are used in constant reinterpretation and combination: the visual metaphor of a composer “juggling” his material, multitasking, arranging and changing contexts like a magician, with full development and combinatoric strategies at his disposal.
                Using MIDI, it’s a practical process - to run musical material through development, export extractions from the development sessions then re-import them for new uses. It was designed in response to Sondheim - to have the leitmotivic material “ready” at all times, to juxtapose against a dramatic situation or song moment, lending meaning or recurring emotion.  
                see: “MIDI collage (rhythmic dispenser process)”, “rhythmic thesis dispenser”, “development session”, “combinatorics”

levels of knowledge:
A problem of  knowledge, relevant to POTU(G) and by extension, NS and reification rationale. It is an intuitive idea that there are different depths of knowledge - we are all familiar with the amateur vs. professional, levels of academic degrees. This concept, however, refers to the problem of the false confidence that results from having a “sense” of a subject, but not enough to be aware of deeper levels. We use habits to fool ourselves - such as using vague terminology in place of being able to describe in detail. “I.O. as approach” serves as protection against the blindness of the novice - using the experience of my deep study of music as analogy. One should assume blind spots when entering new disciplines, find definitive sources, and be open to learning. “Anticipatory learning” is also advisable, not to mention humbling - shock yourself with a source that shows you the full complexity of a subject.
                When converting POTU(G) into reifications in the New Style, what level of knowledge should I be content with? A shallower level would allow me to create more symbols, which would be beneficial in other ways, yet quality of each reification would suffer. Specialization is the enemy of productivity in an anthological project of this scope, yet specialist-level knowledge, even genius-level knowledge, is essential. These paradoxes are included in “100 problems” and “problem context” investigations.
                see: “POTU(G)”, “NS”, “reification”, "I.O. as approach", “100 problems of music”, “genius process/task”

linear domain (NS):
An option for NS holistic organization, modeled after the linear variation set (Diabelli, etc.). It can also imply less complexity than the complex domain of NS - as in the initial combinatoric stages of NS-proper.
                see: “holistic form (NS”), “NS”, “variation orientation”, “NS-proper”, “complex domain”

listening requirements:
The result of an aesthetic question: “how can the composer possibly transfer the way he hears his music, views his music and the background knowledge and experience that birthed the music to his audience with any accuracy?” This is especially important in a complicated musical system like NS that is predicated on so many layers of realization and terminology. To illustrate: the significance of many NS features is based on an answer to an aesthetic problem in “100 problems”, which were derived from Ideas Original. Certain features of NS, like reification/symbolism, variation, description, developing variation, ‘genius’, etc. must be understood and accepted by the listener. Some features,  such as the assertion that music can represent real-life ideas/subjects is controversial, and must be defended first, and something like “description as central” that spawned “theoretical possibilities” can be easily misinterpreted and vilified. The ideal, of course, is a fully empathetic audience - exactly as educated and familiar with your musical language as you are, with nothing lost in translation.
                With NS, listening isn’t passive - much is described and must be transferred to the listener’s imagination to fully bloom. This involves considerable work - reading this glossary, for example, or reading the Ideas Original documents themselves, or even going back to the source material or reading my journals if they were published. Art is only as important or impacting as your mind makes them: Rothko’s black canvases are only “abysses of death” if you believe it to be so - as he did (hence “fully empathetic”), and if you don’t believe it, interaction with the work is pointless. “Listening requirements” in general is a list of requirements the listener should go through before they approach my music. I mean it as objective reality, and not particular to me - it is the approach a listener should take to any work of art to fully appreciate it - “due diligence”.
                Similarly the best “critic” isn’t a “reviewer” as much as an educated guide, trying to deepen the understanding of pieces of art.
                Finally, it functions like a warning - if you don’t adhere to these recommendations, the works “won’t function in the way they are intended”.
                see: “I.O. hermeneutics”, “calibration”, “100 problems of music”, “NS”, “description”

live sound:
An orchestration/timbre objective - not necessarily live performance, but similar quality of recording (live bands/musicians in studio, for example) and musician approach. I prefer the drum timbre, many instrument timbres, sense of space, sense of moment, and the freer interpretation of material (see: “ambiguity theory”). Live sound is a possible “stock” or default modification to material included in my rendered output.             
                see: “stock modification”, “moment theory”, “pan field”, “ambiguity theory”, “freeform orientation”

long line:
“Line” in music can be defined in many ways and at many different scopes - there is the line that the work maintains from beginning to end, the “arc”, the “plot”, the “logic”, etc. - then from this, there are microcosms - the sectional long-line, the melodic long line, the line each musician plays (including the silences), contrapuntal line, the trajectory of characters, etc.. It is an ideal in many mediums (music, art, drama, etc.) to maintain the line, to keep its logical ‘tightness’ - to make the piece or subsection “inevitable”. This negates the ‘choice problem’ by ‘proving’ that everything was “meant to be” or at least “willed to be”. From the “inevitability” entry - “inevitability-as-goal gives each object a reason to exist beyond its assertion in the specific moment, and gives reason for the composition to continue”
                Beethoven, Wagner minimalism and certain songs boast seemingly ‘seamless’ construction, where it feels impossible to break, reroute or remove any event/section (even note) without ruining the causality of the entire work.
                Long line is often pitted as the adversary of “loop”, which by definition “leads back to itself in 12 seconds or less”, creating no tension or even grammar, resulting in poverty when compared, for example, to classicism. Still, it has various priority in my output: It will mainly be seen exhibited in the transition languages where it’s the “prime objective” in the nature style, with its unbroken, inevitable processes, and in single objects, where the object is the line. There is no expectation of continuity in the mature style, while in collage a line can be built using its sources, but is bound to be more inconsistent. “General form”, the result of reification’s application to form, may or may not create long line.
                see: “inevitability”, “transition language”, “supersession”, “position”, “turning point”, “total connectivity”, “general form”

A subsection of “tonal solutions”, a composer must often “break” the self-determining completeness of  a “loop” (and its self-contained/resolving harmonic progression, “square melody” etc.) to continue the composition, as otherwise the loop can eschew development. Many pieces of musical material are/could be looped, or begin as loops, but since the “long line” and ‘through-composition’ are often objectives, loops can be blocks. “Loop breaking” is an investigation that offers many solutions to the issue - everything from “keep looping” (‘vamp+build’ orientation), reharmonizing/redirecting the loop, abstraction, to development strategies that involve complete dissection of the material.
                see: “tonal solutions”, “breaking”, "long line"

loose subject (fugue):
The “loose subject” is defined as the fugue subject plus all modifications that stay within a given standard of recognizability - for example the subject is often modified upon transposition, or used as texture in the episodes. The “looseness” refers to the wider, freer world of the subject and its variations/developments, vs. the strict idea of a single initial subject - it emphasizes the flexibility and multiplicity of a subject. The subject, through pervading the entire composition, creates unique properties of the texture, in essence a holistic ‘axiom’.
                see: “leitmotivic class”, “dry counterpoint”, “axiom”, “holistic axiom”

A term for a low point in dynamic, energy or volume - can be a moment or a section, as opposed to a climax. A lull can prepare a climax or moment of higher dynamics but can also supersede it, is key in using ‘relative weight’ to balance and/or articulate phrasing, can be viewed in “graphic analysis” or given a dB value to measure ‘dynamic range’ as descriptive or to meet an objective for scale/audio-size realism (the subtlety and softness of the lulls of Daphnis Et Chloe, versus peaks). Modular juxtaposition of lull and forte creates a recognizable axiom.                               
                see: “weight/dynamics”, “preparatory theory”, “axiom - lull and forte shock”

mature style:
One of my main musical languages. Before the New Style was developed (esp. its reification and descriptive components), my focus was on the “mature style”, synonymous with ‘Joycean’ music. It was born from number of impulses: “open-endedness” to address the “Principles” document’s goal of “investigatory” music, ,a desire to extend the complexity of musical language toward Joyce’s literary approach, to “reconcile the irreconcilable” (a world where all my languages can co-exist), to facilitate concepts like counterintuition, and simply to “do justice” to Ideas Original and all the possibilities it has exposed (creating a “meta”-historical approach to music) that a ‘single, linear work’ hardly could. “Mature” was taken from Edward Said’s On Late Style, where the ‘mature’ composer gains a greater tolerance for discontinuity and becomes more individualistic and radical. It is mature in its approach to life - not beginning with “answers” but finding them through honest investigation, and also integrating ambiguity, disparity and discontinuity into one’s worldview.
                The mature style is rendered (vs. described) - less profound than NS but the highest of the rendered styles I’ve developed. It relies heavily on semantics and autonomous symbolic objects in juxtaposition, each with its own language (see: “semantic content”) - engendering reference and collage, ‘post-consistency’ - evolutions from one style to another, disparate ideas interacting, “turning points”, supersessions, wit and counterintuition, developing variation at multiple levels. Through the “investigatory” approach, the form emerges at the end of the process, versus predeterminism. The mature style is higher solution: as in real life, there is plurality and diversity of elements, yet they cannot help but be the whole, and many paradoxes can be resolve at conceptual level rather than musical one.
                 In NS, is a leading strategy to symbolize humanity and the ‘world as idea web’.
                Tone-editing can “smooth” disparity.
                see: “Joycean music”, “full spectrum”, “meta-orientation”, “combinatorics”, “semantic content”, “semantic combinatorics”, “historical personal material”, “idea web”, “complex system”, "tone-edit"

A practical category of basic musical material - combinations of melody and harmony, usually encoded into MIDI. It functions as a collection of physical-level musical options: melodic suggestion against harmony, a bank of available emotions, inflection, objects that can be heard and chosen without being named (thus facilitating harmonic ambiguity/complexity).  The objects can be developed out into many different objects, from rambling/uber-romantic lines to jazz heads, from motifs to song. They can be divided into subfolders, esp. by source (easy listening and pop vs. classical vs. art music). Mel-harm aids every level of composition, from song to the mature style.
                see: “combinatorics”, “MIDI collage”

melodic shift: A song/melodic object named in Ideas Original - where melody range shifts upward - seen in many choruses and “third lines” of songbook/Broadway songs.

mental space(s):
The idea of philosophical or artistic “aesthetic” when applied to mind/experience - “thought/mind aesthetic”, many times tied to emotion or ‘personal aesthetics’ (in April 2011, I used the open-ended “mental space” as a new goal for rendered music - similar to “experience”), related to the power of harmony/harmonic progression specifically. It is notable in that it is listener-centric. A mental space can be a discipline, ideology, a memory, a physiological state, an emotion, the worldview or aesthetic world of an artist or novelist, the “thought-language” of a visionary genius, but better yet an intangible combination of all of these and more.
                Meanwhile, NS exists entirely in the mind in its purely-described form.
                Creative philosophy aims to create new worlds (mostly predicated on the unique ways the mind can think or feel about things) rather than existing philosophical questions.
                see: “NS”, “EFT”, “personal aesthetic” (Belle, Glorious Days, Beauty of Life”, “death domain”, etc.), “creative philosophy”,                               “esotericism”

“About music” - since Ideas Original was often a research project investigating the possibilities of music, it made me look at composing in an objective, panoramic fashion, unable to recede into the reductionism of possibility that is “genre” or “style” without reconciling it against “the whole”. This was the fundamental tension in 2008-2009 which eventually birthed the “100 problems of music” document - a meta-analysis of the problems of composing, then in light of that, I conceptualized the “mature style” and eventually the New Style, both fully conscious of the “meta” level of life and art. Much of Ideas Original is deliberately parameter based, such as “language objectives”, then I “generalized” all I.O. lists via set theory as an analogy, creating “meta” categories for each document (“ ‘all’ ambiguity theory strategies” for example). The “full spectrum” and “radicality spectrum” concepts aim to reconcile disparate or dialectical musical material and languages based on redefining them as members of a contiguous spectrum.
                The meta will be a predominant group of reification strategies in the New Style - sets, generalization.
                see: “Ideas Original”, “NS”, “generalization”, “full spectrum”, “language objectives”, “radicality spectrum”

metaphoric distancing:
How metaphor distances the reader from subject - the brain must make an extra leap. The metaphor often comments on the subject in an interesting, original or counterintuitive way, versus the “poverty of directness” - the banality of referring to the subject literally, or in the same way every time. I observe this extensively in Joyce and Shakespeare (‘Hamlet’ analysis).
                It is significant in “periphery”, because you can ‘flavor’ a metaphor with vernacular from a predetermined source or subject (extended metaphor) to “embed” your subject/themes into the language of your work. For example, if wanting to instill a wider view of the world by making the reader ‘aware’ of the entire universe, you could employ celestial vocabulary. This is also the idea web in action - one of the many original uses for existing things or ideas in the world.
                In “genius”, it represents the capability of the genius not only to invent new ways to refer to common things, but is symptomatic of the originality of his perception as a whole.
                see: “periphery”, “genius”, “refraction”, “poverty of directness”, “variation orientation”, “idea web”

metaphoric insistence:
The principle behind all of metaphor and symbolism is the will of mind to relate the compared and insist similarity. The  more tenuous, abstract or indirect the metaphor, the more willful and difficult this is. In the abstraction of cubism, for example, the artist insists that the subject of the painting is a human - despite looking less literally human, the style shows facets or collaged perspectives of a human.  In conceptual art, the artist insists that a seed and glass of water is an oak tree, a urinal is a fountain, or an image of a pipe is not a pipe.
                Another exhibition of this is “context insistence”, where the artist insists that the new invention/innovation is related to predecessors, that it should be considered in the context of the past. It is the creator who must initiate this, as critics or the public may refuse to include their new work in a lineage, instead seeing it as an aberration, unworthy or alien. In musical neoclassicism, the composer insists that a highly modern language is classicist, and that, for example, the abstracted cadenza is still categorically a cadenza. Thus this insistence is essential to codifying new languages, especially when radical, establishing the grammar of the style by insisting that it be considered in the context of existing objects, ideas or aesthetics. Aesthetically, the new work can benefit from association - in neoclassicism, the name itself conjured up importance, images of whited sculpture and columned buildings, historical timelessness, then followed with odd juxtaposition of the new works - the dissonance, jazz rhythms, violence or jabs of wit. The language becomes a mixture of the aesthetic world of the language and its metaphoric analogue. My “echo setting” suite, when set against my insistence of Bernini, is another example.
                When extended to its more radical and tenuous uses, this insistence signals the will of genius acting according to its vision and its originality or idiosyncrasy - the genius artist has a greater tolerance for similarity, insisting that his radical interpretation of a subject, often close to unrecognizable, is the subject, or is similar to the subject. In “gateway theory”, a new discipline is created through the insistence (in word and action) of the founder(s) that the ideology is differentiable enough from other branches to be considered such.
                NS, as it is a symbolic language, is predicated on this spectrum of insistence, and since ‘genius tasks’ take precedence in reification strategies, greater insistence is an ideal (deep conceptual levels, gateway-like ideas)
                see: “genius”, "blinding genius", “reification”. “metaphoric distancing”, “gateway theory”, “levels of obviousness”

microcosmic music (Tatum):
An orientation toward music, inspired by Art Tatum and the detail possible in pianistic music, esp. without sustain. It generally implies the embedding of quotes, musical events and other semantics at the “microcosmic” level - i.e. below/under the melody/form level. “Microcosm” could be implemented formally, but is used here colloquially referring to size/duration. It is closely related to the mature style, transition style and intellectual counterpoint approaches that treat music as a “grammar” able to encode and communicate information using articulation, phrasing, interpretation and appropriation, as well as bodies of strategy like ‘counterintuition’. In the mature style, I envisioned this clearly articulated style in coexistence (via a concerto-type dynamic) with a freer jazz style like Davis’s Bitches Brew, or with the nature style.
                see: “intellectual counterpoint”, “mature style”

MIDI collage (rhythmic dispenser process):
The physical process of juxtaposing musical objects, done in MIDI format in a multitrack editor, using ‘drag-and-drop’ from a bank of objects. Tempo-synched software with ‘drag/drop’ can act as a “dispenser”, allowing the composer to “audition” material, then place into the actual compositional field. The physicality of this act can break mental blocks as to “appropriateness” of inclusion, how to proceed or solve a particular problem. This is the main methodology I employ when composing rendered music.
                see: “rhth”, “rhythmic thesis”, “tonal solutions”, “additive phrase”

Using a deliberately cheap-sounding GM MIDI computerized instrument ensemble in order to concentrate on aspects other than timbre-quality - to isolate composition from the “sound domain” to concentrate on the “idea domain” (other, less sensual features of the music) Generally, the separation of composing and orchestration, which allows the optimization of both.
                A composer can become fascinated with sound to the neglect of almost all other elements of music - one could work on orchestrating a 12-second loop of music for hours, looking for a specific timbre or realism, while ironically ignoring aspects that would improve the music much more. In contrast, composing with explicit knowledge that timbre isn’t a concern, the composer “composes” instead, actually thinking in a different way. When the orchestration phase begins, the composition can be “treated” or “refracted” in many ways, a much smarter approach to orchestration.
                see: “100 problems of music”, “tonal solutions”, “problem orientation”

modular juxtaposition:
A compositional approach/axiom, when objects are placed physically next to one another, often without regard for traditional ideas of preparation, transition or “causality”. This doesn’t mean there is no relationship - to the contrary, meaning can be gleaned in a myriad of ways - as separate objects or vignettes, a combined symbol resulting from combinatorics, a turning point, counterintuition or paradox suggesting a reconciliation in a higher domain (the conceptual, for example), a “jump cut”, direct comparison, collection, a reflection of the idea web (how random objects juxtapose themselves in life), and many, many more. This is used or implied in Joyce, the mature style, “general form”, the ‘late styles’ of many composers, post-modernity, surrealism and collage.   
                see: “semantic combinatorics”, “mature style”, “meta-orientation”, “Joycean music”, “Joycean embeds”, "counterintuition"

moment theory:
The proclamation that “music must be tied to the act of living and existence, to a moment and place, to current events and to the creator(s)” - an effort to contextualize music and music-making, also to explain its greatest products past purely musical attributes. Examples of the list include: being wedded to specific moment, an affirmation of performance and musical drama, collaboration, “cultural climate”, memory, “retrospective moment” (moment recognized in retrospect as ideal), music video/image supplementing music, the relationship of style/language vs. its time, and viewing music in light of reality. It is also a powerful counterargument to the more timeless orientation of the New Style and Ideas Original.
                see: "artist reaction", "100 problems of music", “performance amplification”, “mental space”, “geo-historical location”

Musical object multiplicity, where one composes objects ahead of time, to be manipulated in many finished compositions, used differently in each - the objects have multiplicity, meaning they are useful in multiple contexts, form types (stand-alone, fleeting style, song phrase), etc. The nature of the object will have an effect on the work type: if a complex object is introduced into song, for instance, it will elevate the level of the song’s complexity. One the other hand, if it is introduced into a fleeting style composition, it may need to be ambiguified or complicated.
                In NS, pre-NS objects may be re-used in many places, as objects and ideas are used in the world (see: “idea web”) This was the revelation of “semantic combinatorics”, as before I worried about “redundancy” of object.
                In a reification object, ‘multiplicity’ is seen in an object that can represent many things: something as universal as a drone (which looks like a line) or a tower (which looks like an incline) can symbolize many things, especially when not “explicitly” assigned to a subject. The tower, for example, could mean: population growth, optimism, a growing catastrophe or a rising tension, a mathematical graph or expression, ascension toward a goal or transfiguration, a life in years, a triangle, divergence from its base, etc. When a reification isn’t officially designated as representative of something, it has been “objectified” - made objective, functioning as an “archetypal object form”.
                see: “objectification”, “reification”, “idea web”, “semantic combinatorics”, “NS”, “pre-NS pool”, "NS-proper”

musical material:
Musical material is a blanket name for anything treated as such - used in a similar way to “musical object” or “musical event”. Musical material has most traditionally meant “motif” - a small piece of melody, a collection of notes over time. Yet the designation “material” implies that it is being used for something, used to build something, so this expands the definition: An entire work could be “material” for variation or re-imagining, reused, revised or remixed, abstracted, etc. Material could be grouped by “size” (form levels): total/outer/macro, section-level, local, object, micro-object (individual part of melody or object, down to note), etc.
                Examples of the diversity that falls under the “musical material” name: motif, leitmotif, leitmotif class, musical set, original piece, past/historic piece or excerpt, described piece (NS), cue (movies) head (jazz), long line (Beethovenian), through-composed piece (long line is entire composition), a variation/refraction, microcosm, development, development session/result, sound mass (see nature style), stand-alone objects, symbolic object, ‘human’ sound (new style), collage object (made from multiple audio objects), pre-made or pre-existing objects in general (chord progressions, rhythm/pattern, phrase pattern, chord/melody object), any named object: riff, rap loop, vamp, fanfare, half-cadence, cadenza, anacrusis, traditional form object (intro, outro, song section, exposition, fugue, var set, rondo) and many more.
                see: “event”, “object session”, “MIDI collage”, “general form”

musicological set:
The New Style’s goal is to symbolize subjects in anthological/comprehensive and vivid ways - but what about all the other artists who have addressed the subject, especially those who have created symbols that are seemingly impossible to surpass? Answer: the subject domain and/or intellectual package (IP) can include these in a “musicological set”, that both refers to the artistic/musical history of the subject (“permissible in the spirit of musicology”) and distances it from ‘composed’ NS. Again, the criteria for inclusion will be a mix of prompt and intangible ‘qualia’ (composer’s license). This can also be applied when NS uses an existing genre.
                see: “NS”, “reification”, “intellectual package (IP)”, “qualia”

nature language/style:
The style of music designed to represent traits of nature. It was inspired by the goal to “achieve scale/vastness” parallel to that which I observed in nature, then assimilated other goals such as: symbolizing elements and minerals, features of the universe, and forces/phenomena. The goal was “non-metaphoric” - closer to transmutation - these compositions should parallel/become features of nature.
                Acting under the goal, the nature style birthed many important concepts for Ideas Original and especially the New Style: “audio-size realism”, the H700, “disparate-dramatic”, a definition of sublimity, monochromatic and transfiguration ensembles organized as a “table of the elements”, diversified monochromaticism, the widened pan-field, holistic axiom as the object’s “chemical composition”. It created several landmark rendered works including the “Octave Tower” and “Nature Specimens”) in February 2010.
                The style’s strategies include developing out a single object or timbre into a composition (creating a fractal-like consistent inner structure), diversified monochromaticism, high and low extremes (enlarged vs. small ensemble/monochromaticism, microsound vs. extreme durations), enlarged sound delivery (audio-size realism, pan-field), inner detail, “irreducible” developing variation, layering, use of silence, extension and investigation of a single axiom, anthological ambition (cataloguing of all possibilities of some musical aspect), derivation by system (serialism, mathematics), reification of a single process, evolution or natural phenomena, “conceptual neutrality” (no programmaticism), and minimizing the “disparate-dramatic” qualities of human genre music.
                The nature style goal, as can be imagined, uncovered many limitations to music, which were added to “100 problems” and eventually solved with New Style’s “theoretical composition” revelation and its possibilities.
                see: “sublimity”, “H700”, “table of the elements”, “holistic axiom”, “reification”, “language objectives”, “barriers/extremes”,
                               “radicality spectrum”, “diversified monochromaticism”

negative absolutes:
Part of a philosophical investigation of the conditions of humanity, done in summer 2011, resulting in several documents that spanned the full spectrum, from “beauty of life” aesthetic, optimistic thinking, the permanence of “human universals”, the “normative person” as defined by psychology, to the opposite: the extreme negatives of life and existence, “negative absolutes”. When taken as a whole, it represents a comprehensive “worst case scenario” of existence.
                It was somewhat inspired by a pragmatic existentialist recommendation: that one must build life and identity upon a foundation of stark reality. Whereas most people build their worldview based on ideals and principles that may waver or crumble (youth ages, ability fades or fails, religious tenets can be questioned, even living itself yields to death), negative absolutes objectively exist as “defaults” - ‘the givens’ of existence’, and can function as “anchors”. NS analyzes and questions this assertion, through juxtaposing the absolutes with objects from more optimistic and beautiful mental spaces.
                see: “pet philosophy”, “optimistic ideals”, “human universals”, “normative person”, “reality 1”, “death domain”, “barriers”
                                "world of fact"

new analogues (orchestration):
A concept arising from the question: “is it possible to create a new analogue for every past instrument that is perhaps even better?” New analogues would be applicable if they performed the same function as the existing instrument but were objectively and/or subjectively better or different. This stems from the problem of historical instruments, that they come with predetermined associations, uses and values, clichés, etc. - thus new analogues would be just different enough to avoid the negatives and still be similarly functional.
                see: “vocal surrogate”, "unique timbre", “100 problems of music”, “problem orientation”

normative person:
A philosophical investigation in Fall 2011, inspired by prescriptive psychology. After the study of genius, lasting more than 2 years, I wanted a document defining the ideal “normal” person, to juxtapose with the aforementioned radicalism and idiosyncrasy (it represents a dualism in my philosophy, a tension between ‘reality 1’ and beyond). The list uses psychology as a source to define “normal” action and thought. It is part of a group of lists that looked into humanity around that time - “human universals”, “negative absolutes”, “hypothetical innovations”.
                see: “pet philosophy”, “optimistic ideals”, “human universals”, “negative absolutes”, “reality 1”

NS inversion:
The most radical idea in the New Style, developed after its main features. First called ‘discipline counterpoint’, the “NS inversion”  is a paradigm shift built into the system, from using ‘real world means to manipulate music’ (“reification”) toward using musical means to manipulate the real world: “real life counterpoint”. Form-wise, it can be understood in 2 ways:
                a.) in coexistence with music-side but anything real-world understood to be part of the inversion,
                b.) an actual sovereign mirror-world
                In NS’s thought-world, artificial barriers and constraints cannot ultimately stand - even at the  final level of apparent totality in NS-proper, the foundational property of reification inverts NS completely - now rather than handling musical objects using real-world strategies and analogies, NS wields real-world objects with music’s compositional strategies: reification loses the middleman of conversion to music (“poetic conversion” that underlines and distinguishes art from the real world) and extends musical thought far past musical material.
                The inversion was already foreshadowed by certain properties of the musical side, primarily description, which opened up the field of musical possibilities to the ‘theoretical’ (see: Theoretical Possibilities I.O. doc), past what can be rendered by physical sound: first past my individual practical constraints, then past anyone’s present abilities (“present” must be always be used as a disclaimer, due to the unforeseen component of the future), then past the barriers of sound, heading toward the NS inversion, as description can reference a real world object as material for a musical process. This leads toward unprecedented radicalism of creativity within composition, using a world made extraordinarily malleable - "the New Style must not be limited in any way".
                see: “NS”, “reality 1”, “reification”, “theoretical possibilities”, “semantic combinatorics”, “blinding genius”, “description”

The “New Style” is an interrelated system, a “universe in music” in the form of symbolic musical objects and languages, that is my “grand style”, my lifetime work.
                The New Style:
                                - ‘officially’ began/was ‘named’ in 2010
                                - uses Ideas Original, my body of notes and theory, as its basis
                                - is based on music’s power to symbolize (‘reification’ - “making real or concrete”)
                                - is “philosophy in music”, representing (thus addressing) many philosophical questions and phenomena, especially my own
                                - is both subjective/personal/“art” and objective
                                - in its purest form is totally theoretical and ‘described’, rather than rendered in audio (November 2010 “theoretical music”)
                                - expands music’s possibilities in many ways (“theoretical possibilities”)
                                - has the spirit of variation set and combinatorics at its heart - a dialogue, open-ended and investigatory, not assertive.
                                - creation is open-ended and prompt-based
                                - has autobiography/subjectivity at its core, a meta-narrative and creation myth of the New Style, done in a “personal style”.
                                - is both a style and a hypothesis/experiment
                The New Style system begins with a pool containing a ‘full spectrum’ of musical objects (“pre-NS pool”). These become the material that I create the world from. I combine these to create new objects that symbolize a certain idea (in my philosophy or in the world, etc.) . There are many ways to symbolize something (many concepts), and I can utilize as many as possible, create as many symbols as needed (“reification strategies”), as a variation set gives different “answers” to the initial material. I symbolize many ideas in the same way, then they all begin to interact with each other in a type of argument, creating layers of meaning, continuously subverting and questioning itself, inventing and codifying languages. Objects can exist autonomously, can be contemplated, dissected, juxtaposed, satirized, and joined into larger groups and categories (“semantic combinatorics”). The initial pool represents simplicity (even reductionism), and the levels of combination represent growing complexity and interaction.
                Other more advanced concepts in the system involve “theoretical possibilities”, musical forces, variation sets and explorations of each object (“intellectual package”, “variation set”, “language exposition”), the knowledge and theory behind each object (“body of knowledge”, and different ways to arrange objects (linear, time-based vs. spatial, etc.), use of sets and subsets, and different revisions and reorchestrations of the entire system (“tone-edits”), and the radical “NS inversion”.
                NS as a philosophy is unique because it is expressed in music, which allows it to better reflect the ambiguity of most philosophical issues -  it’s the most abstract artistic medium, perfect for these illusive questions. The philosophy starts with Socratic doubt, so I deny a single answer in favor of ambiguity and complexity. I look at truth in layers - for example, everyday practical truths vs. accepted truths, vs. deeper truths that are harder to prove. I’m interested in layers of meaning and connection that surround, for example, a single object (idea web), which to me seems to be a fundamental quality of existence, especially modern existence. Subject-wise, I will begin with personal, subjective issues - “creative philosophy” (aiming to create new worlds), the issues from Naples 2009, reality and its limitations, identity, different ways to approach life, nostalgia, humor, death, love, art, aesthetics - set against a backdrop of more general questions (“comprehensive philosophy”), as NS possesses a general impulse to codify all the basic questions of life. NS will ideally approach these questions in its own way, as many of the concepts I’ve developed in music can be used in other disciplines (“generalized I.O”. and “I.O. as approach”)
                NS implicitly began through Ideas Original: first through anthologizing existing/past musical ideas/strategies and optimizing them, then grew as the pages increasingly became expositions of my own theories directed towards creating “genius” in music (“create an alternative body of theory”), and the Aesthetics series developed. The New Style began as an exploration of that ‘genius question’ well inside music’s barriers,  as a linear variation set based on a subject: each variation would represent the subject in a different way and would comment on/contradict/negate/transcend (etc.) the previous variation (a “conceptual” variation set).
                “Programmatic representation” (2007, some ideas as early as 2005) was a precursor to “reification” in early 2010, and “programmatic description” (2008) was a precursor to “description” and “theoretical composition) in late 2010. “Concept” was a priority at least as far back as 2005 (“idea domain” vs. the “sound domain”), leading to “task based composing” and “poetic conversion” (2009) into “reification strategies” in 2011. The “principles” document (2007) and “100 problems of music” (2009) outlined the highest objectives for NS to achieve and problems to address, then subsequently accelerated by a “genius” compilation document in fall 2010. A style inspired by variation sets, Joyce, Boulez and sonorism immediately preceded it. The theoretical, described style was born in November 2010 (birthing NS in earnest), the prompt-based structure was developed in June 2011, while semantic combinatorics/pre-NS pool and NS inversion arrived that August.
                I plan to develop The New Style over my entire lifespan.   
                see: glossary (generally, most terms are related to either NS directly or Ideas Original, the basis of NS)

The musical “universe” of the New Style - a neologism created in light of the preliminary and post-NS, which were created in August 2011. Once symbolic musicals objects and/or forces are displayed and considered individually in the “pre-NS pool”, they enter the New Style, where they combine and interact in diverse ways according to the ideas and things they are intended to express (“semantic combinatorics”). See “NS” for a full explanation of the events and phenomena that define NS-proper.
                see: “NS”, “Pre-NS”, “semantic combinatorics”

object sessions (process):
For musical object creation in rendered audio, I use ‘object sessions’ - a dedicated session in multitrack editor for each object. This is distinguished from MIDI sessions, which are often too abstractly distant from the final “audio-in-time” goal: object sessions can utilize collage, vocals, samples, virtual and real/acoustic instruments, as well as plug-in effects, none of which MIDI is capable of. The objects created in the sessions can be exported to .wav or .mp3 to be stand-alone objects, integrated into larger works (“mature style”) or exist as audio benchmarks, while the sessions can be re-used as orchestration templates for subsequent objects.
                The autonomy of each session reinforces autonomy of object, which is essential in semantic-based Joycean and mature styles.
                see: “audio-in-time”, “event”, “mature style”

objectification (reification/NS):
A central concept in reification and the New Style - see: “objective principles”: “the true domain of Ideas Original is objective principle and objectification in general, not the benchmarking of works but the objective categorization of ideas/objects/phenomena for use free of its previous historical connotations.” It is wrong to, for instance, study Jeux for layering, because there may be more radical solutions to the same objective. All you need to do is do an abstract investigation into layering, expose out its parameters and extremes, then create your own method, experiment, hopefully advance past any existing benchmark. This impulse is seen in many of the “anthological” I.O. lists.
                “Objectivity is the inspiration behind “programmatic representation” (that more unique music would result from the challenge of representing real-world things/events) which ultimately became “reification” in the New Style. Now each NS reification is intended, at its highest, to birth gateway disciplines and new languages in the same spirit as objective principles.” NS retains the identity of the objects, ideas, concepts, events and phenomena in the world, distills the thought and features, then absorbs these features comprehensively in the music.
                see: “objective principles”, “objective creation”, “objective modifications”, “programmatic ideas”, “reification”

objective creation:
Creation from objective principles and inspiration outside music - versus “idol worship”-emulation of composers and pre-existing styles. Objectification is a major impulse in Ideas Original, to distill possibility and idea away from specific composers, works and languages and see everything fresh, as the result of parameter and combination. The goal here is freedom from influence into objective lists of possibility and its limitations (“barriers/extremes”) in a certain area. All of the original theories in the second phase of I.O. were also designed with “distancing” in mind - to “create an alternative body of theory”.
                see: “objectification”, “objective modifications”, “objective principles”, “gateway theory”

objective genius:
The form of genius in disciplines where objective measures for genius achievement exist - vs. the arts, where “genius” is largely subjective, a matter of aesthetic judgment. One can objectively recognize the truth of a scientific principle or the ubiquity of an invention - this has to do with the nature of the work/output in the subject area.
                Interestingly, music has this within it - there are “facts” of music that ‘prove’ one piece of music to be, for example, more complex or detailed in a certain dimension than another - whereas people can “argue” beauty, emotion or delicacy, they can’t argue “amount of layers” or “length”, “percentage of original harmonies” etc. (these are “facts”). Still, if useful on occasion (such as measuring the similarity of two parameter-based languages based on number of parameters in common), this has the potential to be terribly reductive.
                see: “subjective genius”, “genius”, “language objectives”

objective modifications - product:
A late Ideas Original document, listing modification “prompts” to modify/transform an existing product. A product can be cross-checked against 100’s of cutting-edge modifications that could prompt innovation in a certain direction. Also an example of “generalized I.O.”, where a principle developed in a music context is applied to another discipline.
                see: “objective modifications”, “imagination springboard”, “appropriation object”, “generalized I.O.”, “development matrix”

objective modifications:
An Ideas Original document, inspired by modern art, listing modification “prompts” to modify/transform an existing object or work. Similar to the impulse that created the “imagination springboard”, that any style can be reached by ‘toggling’ parameters. It is a source-document for “refraction” and “tone-editing”, as well as the monochromatic ensemble, as artistic medium is best represented in music by timbre/orchestration. Process-wise, one takes the object and juxtaposes it against the list, either imagining or enacting the transformations.
                This approach can be applied to many disciplines, such as the business-based “product modification” investigation in January 2012, where a product can be cross-checked against 100’s of cutting-edge modifications that could prompt innovation in a certain direction.
                see: “imagination springboard”, “product modification”, “appropriation object”, “language objectives”, “development matrix”

objective principles:
An Ideas Original document, created in line with the “objective creation” goal of the “principles” document - to flank music, its theory and composers by deriving ideas from alternative sources, composing “objectively”. In its header, it aspires to “take phenomena that are universal across disciplines and/or found in the natural world, combine them with each other and with musical categories/elements to create a domain where wholly new musical ideas can be created. These objective dimensions are intended to be all inclusive, able to predict/explain any musical phenomenon existing or that will exist”. It is an fresh infusion of perspective, because the aspects stay an objective distance from the medium, with the hypothesis that the most original ideas in a discipline could be created outside of the insulation of the native medium. It reduces myopia by considering ideas from the highest/widest domain possible, life itself, and would also require me to become a student of life and all disciplines. Five years later I “paid it back” by generalizing the principles derived from music study into “generalized I.O.”, able to be applied to any discipline, functioning as a guide.       
                Objectivity is the inspiration behind “programmatic representation” (that more unique music would result from the challenge of representing real-world things/events) which ultimately became “reification” in the New Style. Now each NS reification is intended, at its highest, to birth gateway disciplines and new languages in the same spirit as objective principles.
                see: “objective creation”, “objective modifications”, “objectification”, “generalized I.O.”,  “genius”, “language objectives”

open chord: A harmony/chord used in an unresolved context, usually at the end of a phrase or section, not to be confused with open voicing. It can imply fermata, embeds, ambiguity theory, etc. It is a harmonic object named in Ideas Original.

optimistic ideals:
An alternative approach to lyricism and ultimately to philosophy - rather than writing what you know and believe, you must transcend yourself and anticipate your own evolution by writing “things you don’t yet believe” (i.e. but want to), and then react to them as a listener, as you would react to someone else’s work. Many songs “write into being” ideals that aren’t necessarily true, yet become true within the musical/creative context. This expands the creative potential of the artist past his current thoughts and philosophy, into the world itself, hypothetical worlds, “mental spaces” and creative philosophy - this is the same principle behind personal surrogates and identity multiplicity, breaking reality 1 into more malleable stuff.
                see: “personal surrogates”, “creative philosophy”, “identity multiplicity”, “Naples 2009-2010 visit”, “mental space”, “pet philosophy”, “BPC”

autobiographical pieces:
A personal/autobiographical, multimedia novel, designed to be expanded into Joycean complexity, and eventually tied to the New Style as the “personal style” at its core (“total integration”). It is my meta-narrative, and the “prequel”/creation myth of the New Style. All of my pet philosophy is represented in it. Despite having language, thought and event as its basic medium, will be rendered as a work of music and video with certain aspects amplified by Joycean means and symbolized/reified. “Personal surrogates” surround many plot points and present alternative ways to dramatize them, often better or more vivid solutions.
                It will include: excerpts from my journal entries, real Ideas Original theories, my opera about Cairo, Illinois (Fall 2009), hundreds of peripheral works (“personal surrogates”), plus 2012 video of the actual setting. The primarily occurred in Fall 2009 into 2010, aided by a full transcription of my Chronicles journals. Setting these events and interweaving them is planned to be a lifetime work.
                see: “personal surrogates”, “periphery”, “predeterminism”, “pet philosophy”, “NS”, “total integration”

orders of magnitude:
“The class of scale or magnitude of any amount, where each class contains values of a fixed ratio to the class preceding it”, applied to parameters such as size, length, frequency, speed, and time. These orders serve as external “objective principle”/gateway analogy that lent structure to the nature style and New Style in its theoretical/described incarnation. Its applications have included description of the extremes/barriers of music, dB levels (audio-size realism), generalizing frequency and wavelength past music (as well as duration), helping to preliminarily “describe the world” in POTU(G) for use in NS, and expansion of “theoretical possibility” in general. Over the orders of magnitude, perception can change - as in quantum and universal scales, and we experience different realities at different scales.
                see: “NS”, “nature style”, “theoretical possibilities”, “reification strategies”, “objective principles”, “barriers/extremes”,
                               “audio-size realism”, “sublimity”

organic domain, holistic field:
The entire pitch field of sound, more specifically the stage of organic counterpoint. Using this construct, the goal is to “understand and differentiate as much of the holistic field as possible”, to compose freely, in the so-called “new way” prompted by my confrontation of the Hammerklavier fugue. Other applications include a musical idea web, superimposing upon it each moment of every composition ever made, and to individualize each pitch for more semantic meaning, etc.           
                see: “intellectual counterpoint”, “semantic content”, “fluency”, “social dynamics”, “organic counterpoint”

ostentatious ideas:
An exploration related to genius in summer 2009 - indulging the hypothesis that many genius ideas seem stupid at first, I wrote down 2 pages of  deliberately ridiculous, “outlandish, profound” ideas for new music, many of which survive (untouched) in H700. It was a very important thought experiment at the time, because it broke my myopia - I began thinking past what was reasonable to compose, what I had the time or resources to compose, even what is possible to compose, into energetic, imaginative invention and speculation - an inclination that reached fruition in “theoretical composition” and “theoretical possibilities” in NS, and kept going into “NS inversion”, ‘total integration’, and “creative philosophy”
                see: “genius”, “NS”, “theoretical possibilities”, “H700”

pan field (extreme/spatial panning) (rendered NS): Envisioning arrangements of sound past a conventional stereo field (as created in headphones and studio arrays), inspired by the way we experience, process and assimilate disparate sounds in the real-world - from different sources and distances. Expanding the sound-field would allow for greater differentiation of each musical object (because it comes from a dedicated source) while allowing coexistence in collage and harmonic veiling. In other words, you could play objects together, creating a new object, while maintaining the autonomy of the constituent objects. This could facilitate, for example, parallel versions of a composition or moment (think maze/labyrinth), different semantic meaning based on listener position (and shift the volume level/sound-contribution percentage of each object to the overall sound), or each sound source could symbolize a place in history or geographical location.
                This originally was to be made possible through expanded speaker arrangements - wider stereo, then surround, then surround + diverse distances, and was eventually extended into truly/literal geo-historical location via description/“theoretical possibilities” (geographic/universal, past/future and event-based placement)
                see: “NS”, “theoretical possibilities”, “audio-size realism”, “geo-historical location”

partial reification:A partial metaphor aims to represent one or some aspects of something, but not all, as a holistic reification aims to do. Partial reifications are much more common: as it avoids the oversaturation and nebulousness of form that results from holism - the subject domain takes on the holistic burden. Partial reifs can take on any form, including that of  a minimalist symbol, but it is the coverage/information about the subject that is “partial”.
                NS addresses the ‘holistic vs. partial’ dichotomy with the body of knowledge, which keeps most information at a subsidiary distance “behind”/“around” the actual object, and through variation orientation, where multiple reifications of the same topic supplement, interact and contradict/argue with each other - a “philosophical discourse” on the subject. Both of these are part of the “IP” or ‘intellectual package’ - representing the thought-space around any subject in the world.
                see: “reification”, “NS”, “holistic reification”, “body of knowledge”, “variation orientation”

particularization: Amidst the strong trend toward sets and generalization in NS, particularization and “extreme particularization” (or “singularity”) became necessary as a counterbalance - the decision to use a single one piece of material or object (vs. subsets or superimpositions).
For example, basing a reif on a specific instance of a general form, or deeming a single choice definitive - with no alternative choices able to meet the same standard. Particularization is an “act of description” that can make a strong statement - bestowing a special significance on an object, concept or event, sweeping away all its supplementary analysis leaving a starkly isolated symbol - for example “Octave Tower” in the death domain.
                see: "singularity", “generalization”, “reification”, “generalized I.O.”, “act of description”, “choice problem”

performance amplification:A performance-based concept with two sides - 1.) strategies for elevating, improving and supplementing an existing piece of music (esp. song) with aspects of performance, and 2.) that a performance can unduly elevate the mediocre, distorting its real value.
                Performance can be a means of transfiguration: this involves amplification, reinterpretation, reorchestration/recomposition, graphic design/set design, collaboration, and tying the music to the outside world, through symbolic gesture, references to place/time etc. outside of the original conception. The music becomes anthemic, something larger than its original intention. The size of the venue and crowd, guest collaborations, etc. One can compose with performance already in mind, as the emphasis will soon shift to performance aspects anyway.
                As adoxography (exaltation of the unworthy), it is part of “100 problems” - a performer can give an amazing performance that disguises the weakness or triviality of the material, creating an area of critical ambiguity: are songs simply empty vehicles for performance, where “the performance is the thing”, or is there worth in music itself once the performance is stripped away? It is sometimes startling how much a song “grows” in live performance: “You could hear the original and not think much of it, then upon performance it has grown in maturity/ stature/importance.” This is an especially relevant concept in popular music.
                see: “moment theory”, “100 problems of music”

periphery: A dramatic concept, related to plot and lyric. Periphery is all the included elements in a plot (usually fictional) that add information and reinforce themes or aesthetic - both at the event-level and detail level. Especially in fiction, the writer has every element under his control: thus he could hypothetically make every choice based on a desired meaning, symbolic meaning, effect or predetermination to include something (predeterminism). (see: “justification”). The entire work becomes a web of association, almost as if the themes of the work have “attracted” related objects and ideas to it, becoming a richer portrait. There are no “empty” or “default” choices - everything contributes meaning or effect.
                We associate Shakespeare with a “universal scale” or wisdom  because of the choices he makes: he treats man as “Man”, and makes characters speak as if they possess universal experience: allusions to the universe, fate, God, humanity, philosophy. Plots feature universal subjects (politics, love, death). Each character has archetypal features, thus the play rises past the particular into timelessness. .
                The third month of Naples 2009's aesthetic was jewel-like, so I utilize the many opportunities to include this “peripheral” motif, injecting the predetermined aesthetic into otherwise “blank” spaces: I have a character work at a jewelry store, the horizons twinkle like jewels, some of the lyrics refer to jewels or effects of light associated with jewels, while the music features jewel-like shimmers, glockenspiel and Rhodes, piano, and one of the soliloquies focuses on the features of jewelry. It could be done in an even subtler manner - in a character’s earrings, a jewelry store in the background of a scene, or by using only “effects of light + jewelry” vocabulary in dialogue but never naming an actual jewel.
                More important than “jewels” though, it is essential that my pet philosophy is represented - but it must be manifested subtly, thus many strategies for inclusion will be indirect and idiosyncratic.
                Joyce uses a day in Dublin as one huge analogue for the myth of Ulysses. He references the myth in kaleidoscopic ways, ranging from absurdly odd to ingeniously clever to more fundamental and obvious. The sheer amount of reference (and levels of reference that coexist), are, aside from its language and formal invention, the most prominent features of its genius. His originality in solving the problem of a ‘constant analogue’ is miraculous. It does gain an element of fantasy in the amount of connections it draws - it uses banal reality as the clay (material) for a fantastically detailed, interconnected psychological world. This is the idea web in full exhibition, here within a drama.
                In the “periphery” document, I list many strategies to include a certain types of objects or ideas into a drama.
                see: “predeterminism”, “reification”, “semantic content”, “plot frames”, “Joycean embeds”, “personal surrogates”

personal style (NS): The personal style at the core of NS, representing the individual - an esoteric, subjective combination of personal musical material, axioms, and semantic content, located within the ‘human style’. The nucleus is the events of the 2009-2010 Naples visit that is both my meta-narrative and the New Style’s “creation myth”.
                see: “Naples 2009-2010”, “pet project”, “personal surrogates”, “Glorious Days”, “Belle Époque”

personal surrogates: When an 'auteur' doesn’t represent himself directly in his work, but uses other actors in scenarios to indirectly dramatize a personal issue, situation or belief. This is especially useful when using the directly-autobiographical would lead to comparably weaker dramatization of the issue - for example, “difficulty defining and finding success in life” is better dramatized in Death of a Salesman, with the unique interplay between Willy and the imaginary Ben, than it would be by telling one’s own prosaic story of looking for a job. In Salesman, it is elevated to the tragic, and the entire drama is set in a climactic moment, days (then hours) from Willy’s suicide. Thus the creator of art can create a “prosthetic” world - a world that extends from himself - but is more vivid and vast, more urgent, etc.. Parameters include surrogate characters, settings, dialogue/quotes, events, plots, vernaculars. Songwriters often use singers as surrogates for their subjective feelings/thoughts, whose vocal skill, acting ability, appearance, visibility and life story all could present higher aesthetic results than the songwriters singing it themselves.
                see: "autobiographical pieces", "artist worldview"

pet philosophy: Affectionately referred to as “pet” philosophy - these are the issues that are given precedence over the list of historic philosophical issues called “comprehensive philosophy” and POTU(G). Every  philosopher and artist ‘refracts’ the universe through a unique perspective, focuses on the ideas and issues he feels are relevant, and many of the most unique and influential ways to think and “see” come from an ideology or discipline rather than generic ‘philosophy’. It is part of a “higher solution” - to never have to dwell on the predetermined problems of “generic” philosophy - instead create my own philosophical system, and eventually new worlds in “creative” philosophy.
                The vehicle for this philosophy is music - the New Style’s system and also in the other various pieces.
                Pet philosophical issues include: “creative philosophy”, genius, the ‘idea web’, complexity, reality 1 vs. BPC, reality vs. art, stratified truth, the humor context, death, “identity multiplicity”/personal surrogates, memory and nostalgia, religion, humanity/existentialism (dealing with the “givens of life”) “mental spaces”, meta/generalization, and of course music theory itself - many theories in Ideas Original can be applied to other areas/subjects/disciplines.
                see: “philosopher-in-music”, “NS”, “creative philosophy”, “genius”, “I.O. as approach”, “comprehensive philosophy”, “POTU(G)”

pet project: Rendered personal project(s), more genre-based - influences from Marvin Gaye, Sondheim, Jimi Hendrix, Michel Legrand, Miles Davis/Gil Evans, Beethoven, Salome - trying to fuse all of them into an intangible whole - they can be united in various ways - tonality, transition, melody, form, even in a more disjunctive fashion using “mature style” principles.
                It is not intended to be held to the same philosophical standards as new style (rigor in “choice” for example).
                see: “personal style”, “rendered”

philosopher-in-music: A distinction I make (vs. “composer”), which is a more accurate description of my role in the New Style, a system of musical symbols designed to express ideas and concept. I have emphasized a “programmatic” basis (the “idea domain”) for my compositions at least as far back as 2005 (against the perceived arbitrariness of the “sound domain”). In 2008 I delved into the history of philosophy and realized that “philosophy seems to provide a domain for many of my deepest questions and is without barrier or medium”. The role of ‘philosopher in music’ liberated me from the aesthetic stereotypes of music, ultimately leading to the “theoretical music” breakthrough in November 2010.
The “NS inversion” takes this a step further, hypothesizing the effect of compositional processes on real-world objects/ideas, and “creative philosophy” reflects music’s influence on my philosophical work, creating new philosophical worlds vs. “describing” the world as it is.
                see: “pet philosophy”, “NS”, “creative philosophy”, “genius”, “I.O. as approach”, “comprehensive philosophy”, “POTU(G)”

phrase relay: One of the hundreds of orchestration “prompts” - referring to plural orchestration’s interplay among multiple instruments, “passing” the lead melody/theme to one another (like a relay race). Often seen in jazz, soundtrack, and easy listening. Its implication is plural pointillism, where every note is given to a different instrument.
                see: “axiom”, “ambiguity theory”, “transfiguration”, "introverted transfiguration"

phrase rightness: A lyric concept and list in Ideas Original of certain “united” phrases/figures of speech used in the common vernacular that possess a “rightness”. They are often used in lyric or song titles because they “sound right” - possessing features like rhythm, alliteration, rhyme and other devices. By extension, they can create lawful phrase when setting them to music, which is the main objective of the transition language, as seen in rhythmic thesis theory, Classicism, song, etc.                         
                see: “transition language”, “rhythmic thesis”, “lyric surrogate”, "additive phrase"

placeholding theory: A process step/approach, utilizing audio benchmarks to as preliminary placeholders for original material. It is pragmatic but also addresses the “choice problem” by treating the benchmark as a “symbolic representative” of a ‘set of musical objects possessing common traits’, of which the upcoming original material will also belong. Similarly, “100 problems” asserts that all musical ideas already exist in some approximation. The benchmark can be approximated/imitated, used as an ideal (complexity standards), or used as base for elevation/transfiguration/modernizing. Either way, it is a strong strategy in both the rendered and described styles, is more comprehensive than directional rhythmic thesis, and is a practical implementation of the “imagination springboard” concept.
                see: “audio benchmarking”, “replacement”, “aesthetic benchmarking”, “ appropriation object”, “imagination springboard”

planetary/universal death: Included in the death domain, superseding the death of individual.
                Artistically, it contributes to the great artist’s duty to anthologize the world in light of its eventual nonexistence.
                “The new style contains both abstraction and an anthological programmatic ambition that is the motivator for POTU(M). It is not so much that the work is limited to representing “our world/universe”, but that in light of he greatest artists of the past, of personal death and planetary death, it is the burden of the genius artist to refract universal totality through his work, existence and the far larger world of nonexistent, impossible and imaginary. It is the work of the artist on his deathbed, clamoring to preserve everything he has seen, known, thought and imagined, with the tragic knowledge that the human race will someday similarly vanish (along with everything that they created).”
                see: “death domain”, “NS”, “POTU(G)”, "negative absolutes", "barriers"

plot frames: A concept in the drama section of Ideas Original, analyzing archetypal plot arcs, where moments could be embedded (it was developed in concert with “plot points”). At the time the purpose was expressed as “archetypal narrative-style dramatic architectures, single and combined and unfolding over time, scaffolding for subplots and moments” There is potential for allusion and symbolism in the use of “historical plot frames”  (Ulysses, for example). Frames, both general and specific, can be converted to musical form in “dramatic conversion”, the first inkling of the  “general form” impulse in 2008.
                The drama portion of Ideas Original was originally done for the Cairo opera, which dissolved in the fall of 2009.
                see: “plot points”, “plot sharpness”, “periphery”, “dramatic conversion”

plot points:A concept in the drama section of Ideas Original, listing potential individual moments within a drama, benchmarking them from past dramas (movies, plays) for the objective of strong scenes/moments. They are seen as ‘moments within plot-frame scaffolding’. Done in 2008 in preparation for an opera (in concert with “plot frames”), it is still relevant in any drama-based reifications and in the personal surrogates.
                see: “plot frames”, “plot sharpness”, “periphery”, “event”, “programmatic scenes”

plot sharpness, “human emotion”: An analysis of drama in Ideas Original, aiming to identify especially poignant moments and arcs of emotion, to connect with and move an audience, to improve plot. It is both a concept and a goal. It also highlights: the differences between weak, vibrant and deliberately coldly unemotional works, the potency spectrum within each emotion, the breadth of emotion type, amount of “directness”, “humanity”, and context - the average emotional level determines what it will take to “break out” of that climate.
                In addition, it lists “instances of human emotion”, esp. intense ones, for inclusion in fictional plots.
                see: “plot points”, “plot frames”, “effect-function thesis”, “human universals”, “Naples 2009-2010 visit”

PMF, programmatic micro-form: Form at the level below section - allowing music to be described (thus created) at a “micro-level” - a melody, moment or long-line, for example. This strategy is employed masterfully by music theorists and writers, as in Charles Rosen s analyses of the ‘classical style’, or in descriptions of Beethoven in Mann’s Doctor Faustus. The idea that one can tangibly explain the greatness of a piece of musical material using traditional music theory, using Ideas Original theories (counterintuition, preparatory theory, poetics and ambiguity theory etc.), and using programmatic description (resemblance to real-world phenomena), means that one can reliably create greatness in music through the same approaches.
                This affirmation of the power of description and symbolism carries all the way to the purely-described reifications of the New Style
                see: “PMF-EFT “universal grammar”, “EFT”, “description”, “programmatic description”, “reification”, “event”

PMF-EFT “universal grammar”: This investigation is a development on “effect-function thesis” in Ideas Original, with the hypothesis that the things we find great/interesting in life/the world we find great/interesting in our music - “music as surrogate experience”. It yielded a helpful list of events we find impactful, which function as ‘life-event > music’ recommendations (such as the sublimity found in natural events, conflagrations and violence, “love” and intimacy, the fascination of ‘unfolding process’ (axiom), problem solving and thought, many more.)
                This lead to the unexpected suggestion of a “universal semantics/grammar”, a reconciliatory theory tying together all musical languages, modernism included - the many parameters that remain across cultures, esp. once harmonic/melodic differences are disregarded. Strategies used to encode and express information in music, musical symbolism for example (even if styles differ on how) generally “make sense” across cultures. For example, most cultures attribute a single symbolism/meaning to ‘improvisation’ - “freedom” and “freedom within the collective.” Regardless of culture, all musical systems are solving similar musical problems (explicitly or implicitly). Finally, that there is a limited amount/spectrum of things an object could credibly represent, meaning EFT is generally reliable, at least as a prescriptive norm. Obviously there are contradictions - for example the willful metaphoric insistence of the counterintuitive artist.
                For NS, it was encouragement enough to begin assigning permanent symbolic meaning to some musical objects/events, normative ones, then build from there, via “norms to go with/against”.
                see: “EFT”, “reification”, “artist strategies”, “language objectives”, “objective modifications”, “PMF”, “sublimity”

poetic conversion: In simplest terms, PC can be symbolized as turning a prose statement into a poetic statement. Poetic conversion strategies arose from a need to systematize ways that written idea (“idea domain” (2005), “programmatic subject” (2007), “reification subject” (2010), “pet philosophy” etc.) can be represented artistically, as well as the many forms it can take (“idea types”, “general form”), and the strategies employed (“artistic strategies”). This is the principle behind symbolism/reification, and is now subsumed into the body of theory surrounding reification in the New Style. It is mostly prompt-based, containing historical precedent and new possibilities (“theoretical possibilities” etc.)
                see: “deep generation concept”, “idea types/general form”, “reification”, “artistic strategies”, “periphery”

poetics: A generalization of “strange poetry” (of which “strange” poetry is a subset), ‘poetics’ is an ideal goal for composition as well as an approach. It is somewhat “normative”, as it uses a conventional definition of beauty defined by the enlightenment and humanism, and aspires to “poetics” as seen in mainly humanist, historical works. Counterintuition, transfiguration, and strange poetry all acknowledge, on the other hand, that one can use unorthodox means to create beauty, even higher beauty less prone to cliché. “Shining character” aims not only to create character, but to become the archetype/exemplary symbol of that character. It is unlimited and illusive, but Ideas Original aims to make it more tangible.
                As an approach, it prescribes “combination and manipulation of poetics will be the main priority”, designing an “emotion language”,  a system for “consistently generated beauty”, by wielding the “emotional thesis”/”EFT” body of theory, where emotion/effect on the listener is the explicit objective.                                
                Poetics could be a reification strategy in NS (“emotional reifications”), and will feature heavily in areas dealing with humanity, though inevitably countered by the warning in “100 problems”: “since poetry is the nature of music, it is almost too easy to create poetry” (i.e. superficial poetics can be created without quality of content). In NS, the default emotion is “sublimity”, but due to its holistic approach, reifications run the full spectrum.  
                see: “EFT”, “strange poetry”, “shining character”, “ambiguity theory”, “transfiguration”, “sublimity”

POM: Portrait of Music, parallel to POTU(G) in approach - music theory, notation, biography
                see: “POTU(G)”, “artist reaction/evolution of music”, “musicological set”, “specific aesthetics”, “audio benchmarks”

positions: “Position” is a principle that says an object or event is differentiated by its location within a composition and its relationship to the events around it. This is distinguished from considering an object or event in the abstract, without context, thus in a list of musical objects such as the “full event list”, it is necessary to further differentiate the event by adding location (i.e. not “vamp” but “introductory vamp”, not “complex counterpoint” but “complex counterpoint as climax”, etc. It is smarter dramatically: objects of resignation, for instance, have more gravity towards the end, and large or climactic objects seem most justified at the end, while one can also question stereotypes - perhaps putting a huge crescendo at the beginning as an introduction. Finally, it takes burden off of designing initial material/“long line” - it sees a composition holistically, it becomes more about what happens to the material than the material itself, and one could begin composing from anywhere. One can design forms for specific reasons, using ‘position notation’.
                This concept provides a framework for concepts like “preparatory theory”, “supersession”, “turning point”, “explicit form”

POTU(G): Shorthand for the imposingly named “Portrait of the Universe (General)”, a research/study project to precede and coincide with the creation of the New Style. Basically, if the New Style is to symbolize the world and its universe, I had better understand it (at least as far as it is currently understood). First, the objective is to provide a basic foundation for the world’s detail - establishing the quantum and atomic levels, and the cosmic outer context, the biological in humans, the history of the universe, etc. Next, it concentrates on the interrelatedness and “connectedness” of everything, the layers, subject-areas and ideologies of the world (a “manifestation of the idea web”). It maintains a “history of the human world” timeline to plot the evolution of certain “human universals”, such as innovation, war, religion, and art.
                POTU is not intended to contain original research - it is intended to be a foundation.
                Practically, POTU unites all my disparate investigations under a consistent framework while giving them greater purpose, can be gleaned for idea web prompts, teaches me how to create a “world of my own in music” (the interaction of law and different sets of laws), gives me wider knowledge than music alone (see “philosopher-in-music”, “objectification”), and can answer some questions definitively.                              
                The New Style has a high amount of tension with POTU, because although one of its ambitions is to “preserve our world/universe” (symbolically) in light of its eventual death, “levels of knowledge” and my fixed lifespan reveal this to be an impossible task at a certain standard, thus NS takes frequent refuge in subjective artistry, with whom it also has a love-hate relationship (see “100 problems of music” and “theoretical composition”). Similarly, is POTU based on current thought, or does it include an inventory of historical perspectives? What about the far vaster domain of “people’s thoughts about the world”? (the deeper layers in the idea web). Comprehensiveness is an impossibility, or is it? What about the questions I can’t get around to answering or subjects I don’t have time to reify? Do I discard reification of the world and just create an autonomous universe in music? (i.e. no goal to parallel the real-world with accuracy) Much of 2011 was spent wrestling with these questions, birthing “generalization”, the “personal language”, the “pet philosophy”  vs. “comprehensive philosophy” distinction, “NS inversion” and the “descriptive philosophy” vs. “creative philosophy” distinction. Many questions still remain, some are left up to each object to answer freshly via the prompt-based architecture. NS is a lifetime work, hopefully resulting in at least a decent facsimile of the whole: then added to, revised and re-aligned with future advancements.
                Tangentially, once I established the goals for POTU, I looked inward and adapted POTU to music, resulting in “POM”, “portrait of music” - with the goal of describing music in decent totality - its history, principles, practice.
                see: “NS”, “reification”, “NS inversion”, “objectification”, “philosopher in music”, “POM”, “planetary death”

poverty of directness: A concept affirming genius and the idea web supported by Joyce’s Ulysses:
                “The way Joyce writes…one must learn to think in a new way - a hyperactive, omniscient, playfully brilliant, all-inclusive manner of thought, but counterintuitively veiled - with a level of indirectness that interrupts the normal objective of thought and speech - the goal to be “direct and concise”. Within the artist domain, Joyce exposes the poverty in this goal - “poverty of directness”. This also refers to the level of multiplicity, reference, association and connection exalted in the idea web, in the New Style and mature style, in variation form, semantic combinatorics, and seen in genius thought and work.
                see: “genius”, “metaphoric distancing”, “idea web”, “Joycean music”, “multiplicity”

pre-abstraction: The generation before/“behind” abstraction in the reification’s “body of knowledge” (BOK). It is a way to maintain the abstracted, modern/futuristic nature of a reification (as the general goal of NS is to design “new” languages”) while “grandfathering in” traditional/historic forms and idioms. For example, a BOK behind an object could be a full musical/opera/song, leaving the actual object free to abstract, quote or modernize it - the path ‘Porgy and Bess’ took from Gershwin’s opera to Gil Evans’/Miles Davis’ suite. In that example, pre-abstraction would allow all the semantic context and plot in the opera to coexist “behind” the stoic ‘absolute music’ variations of the suite. Many generations of interpretation are possible. It is also possible to extrapolate a full “pre-abstraction work” from an abstract object.
                see: “body of knowledge”, “deep generation concept”, “intellectual package”, "refraction", “poetic conversion”, “reification strategies”

predeterminism: Initially a dramatic-literary concept, a list of strategies to integrate any desired/predetermined elements (“periphery”) into a fictional drama (like a film or novel), ideally using a structure that logically subsumes them to the whole. The author/composer would have predetermined philosophy/themes, objects, aesthetics, places, etc., then would design/choose the plot and all other parameters specifically for the purpose of their expression and inclusion. This is in ‘auteur’ Joycean spirit, where the artist creates an ideological world. See Ulysses - his choice of personal setting, allegorical plot, moments to discuss philosophical concepts or reference historical events, include a song, etc. Plot frames say “plot is scaffolding for moment”, and by extension, “moment is scaffolding for detail” - all used in the service of predeterminism, in this case.
                The autobio works are designed in this mold: no choice in it will be arbitrary, everything will be reflective of ideology or aesthetic. Each piece of music, plot point, dialogue/interaction, place is either directly autobiographical or part of a personal surrogate.  
                Predeterminism can take on a negative connotation when juxtaposed with an open-ended, investigatory, experimental process - determining what you want in advance can be self-censorship, blinding yourself to many possibilities, especially counterintuitive ones.
                see: “periphery”, “autobiographical works”, “personal surrogates”

pre-NS pool: In the New Style, the “pool” or “bank” of free reifications/objects, “unordered”, to be considered and used in NS. The pool can be said to represent the “implicit totality” that the combinatorial objects in “NS-proper” are created from. The pool was a “fix” for a number of problems with NS: potential object redundancy (now objects can be “taken from the pool” as many times as necessary, combined in different ways), confusion between “object” and “force” (the pool is “free”, thus allows forces, objects, anything), “domain” as too inflexible (now I can created many kinds of general/non-musical form through combinatorics - mental spaces, domains, arguments, convergence, exhibitions, taxonomies, force exhibitions, etc.). In addition, objects don’t have to be tied to a domain, just as objects in real-life aren’t necessarily tied to ideology.
                Pre-NS can be “ordered” somewhat - via more neutral criteria like “morphology”.
                “The entirety of the NS reification pool becomes a macrocosm of variation form’s arbitrary yet ideal(istic) simplicity: of science’s isolation of variables in controlled experiments, of formal systems, of abstract art.”
                see: “NS”, “NS-proper”, “semantic combinatorics”

preparatory theory: A theory of form in Ideas Original - how one event prepares another and the effect it creates. Generally, it is the science of going moment to moment in a composition, “long-line”, creating meaning though time and context rather than through the stand-alone value of an object. “Position” further articulates this. “Lull” prepares “climax”. In counterintuition, meanwhile, preparatory sections create “false sense” for an unexpected event, and entire works “prepare” a “turning point”. In supersession, a work supersedes expectations in subsequent moments or sections. The Ideas Original document lists “preparatory event and  emotion sequences – preparation, event and reaction”.
                see: “position”, “counterintuition”, “supersession”, “turning point”, “EFT”

problem context/orientation: An I.O. document where the specific objective is to name and list solutions to problems or tasks - the higher and less practical counterpart to tonal solutions - the philosophical issues of music and beyond, explicitly addressing the problems listed in “100 problems of music”. Subsections under each problem include solutions prescribed from: “higher solution”, the New Style’s “theoretical possibilities”, and from philosophy. It is one of the best ways to arrange and experience all of Ideas Original - everything is ultimately problem solving (extended to the problem context of reality 1), where genius as the ability to find the right solution for a problem, be aware of more solutions, better, more ingenious, higher solutions. It is refreshingly explicit and direct approach.
                see: “tonal solutions”, “100 problems of music”, “reality 1”, “Ideas Original”

programmatic analogue: “Equivalencies” of subject/reality and music - the “bridges” of meaning that allow metaphor, symbolism, reification. “Programmatic” refers to ‘program music’, music set to an external theme or plot. There are obvious analogues, such as “time = time” (time in music acts similarly to time in real life), “event = event” or “dissonance = conflict” (as heard in movie scores). Some values are less direct or universal, such as “active panning = space-time relativity” or “harmonic veiling = Socratic doubt”, but are supported by the rationales/justifications within their approach. The more “fixed” these equivalencies are treated, the stronger and more understandable a symbolic grammar of music will be. There are many such associations that are nearly “fixed”, but also a vast amount of associations that can be newly defined within each piece or context - as each reification in New Style reification ideally establishes its own language. Generally, the feasibility of the New Style depends on the credibility of these analogues and the rationales behind them.
                see: “reification”, “NS”, “PMF-EFT “universal grammar”, “general form”TOP

programmatic description: The full/official title of ‘description’, “programmatic” in the sense of using literary/written description to describe music. Evolved into “description” in the New Style.
                see: “description”, “PMF - programmatic micro-form”

programmatic ideas: A deprecated but pioneering term: though the goal of music corresponding to an “idea domain”, movie score and “task” were already mentioned in early 2007, “programmatic ideas” was the first definitive realization of the goal to symbolize external inputs (objects, events, phenomena etc.) in music. I wrote of an “imagined plot”, “not clarified enough to be a written drama, but enough to suggest actions, interactions, scenes and visual images”. It would allow me to discover forms, styles, axioms and “complex emotion” I wouldn’t in abstract, and to connect the abstract with real life (early “philosopher-in-music”). It immediately moved past plot into “universal subjects”, then evolved in stages: single works, then several programmatic ideas in suite form, then “subject-variation sets” and eventually the New Style’s more holistic actualization of symbolism and variation.
                I also saw the need for “counterintuitive/clever ways to represent these ideas (versus cliché/surface level solutions)”, leading to many concept-oriented investigations, such as “poetic conversion”, “levels of obviousness”, “idea types”, “artistic strategies”, and “reification strategies”, “dramatic conversion”, etc.
                see: “reification”, “universal subject”, “task-based composing”

programmatic scene: A dramatic scene, like in Joyce or the autobio settings, that has reification as objective. It is understood similarly to a music reification - created through designating a subject, themes or a goal aesthetic, then through reification strategies/justification, development, and creation through the designation and manipulation of symbolic/referential grammar/analogues (“periphery”). A scene is one approach to reifying a subject in NS.
                see: “reification”, “periphery”, "autobiographical works", "predeterminism".

prompt-based open architecture (NS): The current process of NS creation, allowing for maximum flexibility.
                “I have addressed this NS intangible flexibility, this illusory quality, by using prompts at each level - pre-NS, reification, intellectual package, combinatorics, holistic processes, NS inversion, etc. So, instead of referring to a rigid stencil, I simply direct my creation using a series of questions I must answer during NS operations (if viewed as an autonomous system, they’re issues NS considers). The nature of the questions, their phrasing, inherent ambiguity or precision, scope, etc., is reflective of NS’s open, customizable quality.”
                “NS”, “reification”, “reification strategies”

prose-sketch: A compositional process where a composer records or writes a “prose version” of a song or larger music/text work (any work with lyrics content) to first establish the lyrical and dramatic logic, then use it as frame for music. This serves as a type of benchmark, to be “converted”/translated into poetry. This gives the composer a sense, at any given time, where the music “must go”, what the lyric will refer to, the stage action/timing, the emotional “tone”, and more. This is corroborated by the collaborative dialogue between a book writer and composer of musicals or operas (Sondheim, for example).
                see: “poetic conversion”, “audio benchmark”, "placeholder theory", "semantic content"

qualia: Defined as  subjective “range” or “tolerance” a human uses to include/exclude a given object from a category, “qualia” is an existing philosophical term utilized in the New Style’s theoretical incarnation.
                Theoretical NS addresses the “choice problem”  by deeming any choice made in the physical composition a “symbolic representative” of all other appropriate choices that could have been made, especially if there is no rationale that determines a specific choice. This conceives of the physical composition as existing against a superimposition-shadow of all other choices the composer would have chosen as appropriate if given “necessary time” to choose.
                “Qualia” arrives here as the name/category for the (explicit and intangible) set of criteria the composer uses to make a given choice. It posits a “composer with a critical ear and a subjective image of the compositional objects he would deem desirable and/or acceptable in light of the context/circumstances (which then comprise a “set”), as well as his “prohibitions”. Qualia is situational: “Admission to the NS universe or even the pre-NS pool is based on ‘qualia’, necessarily vague. An object that would be unequivocally banned from NS as a stand-alone could be essential in a combinatoric juxtaposition, or in humor context, and more explicitly, I.O. principles like transfiguration and counterintuition teach that any piece of musical material, no matter how vulgar or antithetical, can be transformed and/or utilized in certain contexts.”
                see: “choice problem”, “generalization”, “NS”, “theoretical possibilities”, “100 problems of music”

radicality spectrum: A 2010 attempt to rank objects and their associated languages in terms of radicalism - in the context of their use in a rendered variation set. It classified musical orientations: “H700” objects, “nature” style, “anthological”, “mature style”, “disparate-dramatic”, “song” etc. It drew a definitive line between “universal and human scale” as part of the “human vs. abstract” variation form discourse - still able to be seen in the current philosophy of NS. The underlying rationale behind it was to establish a typology spectrum to parallel the different scales of the universe I saw in POTU(G), to put “human styles” (genre music) into context (per “100 problems”), to know what “level” I’m working in at any given time and “what supersedes what” in a given variation set.
                If updated, the purely described version of the New Style would rank highest, but would also have a spectrum within it, based on which strategies and theoretical possibilities the reification took advantage of.
                see: “full spectrum”, “mature style”, “nature style”, “NS”, “100 problems”, “radical ideas toplist”, “barriers/extremes”

reality 1: The physical domain of our world and universe and its associated limitations, especially as a heuristic or “stereotype”. It is a loose collection of aspects of the tangible reality we live in - survival, the implied utilitarianism, need for pragmatic use, stable truth, functionality, and “descriptive philosophy” that represents the world accurately. It is also defined by “what is believed to be impossible”, and is defined elsewhere as “the societal marketplace”, “where ideas are collectively judged and valued, per the ideal of democracy and equality”. It also represents death, at the personal, planetary and universal level.
                Reality 1 is juxtaposed with the theoretical, hypothetical and imaginary, Socratic questioning, alternate realities, the mythic, disproved theories of reality, artistic/aesthetic worlds, the ‘beyond problem context’ construct (the universe as “conflict/problem solving”), as well as the impossible and nonexistent, but is most often used in terms of the individual vs. the limitations reality imposes, and how he can “break” reality 1 in various ways. “Barrier theory”, “beyond problem context”, “esotericism”, “genius”, “stratified truth”, “gateway theory”, "identity multiplicity", and “creative philosophy” all dissolve reality 1. The rigidity of reality 1 is often pitted against the “artist domain” and its malleability - the ultimate manifestation of this is in the NS inversion, where reality is deconstructed into material for the compositional procedures of music.
               see: “pet philosophy”, “BPC”, "barriers", “breaking”, “POTU(G)” , “world of fact”, “negative absolutes”, “NS inversion”, “death domain”

real-time form (NS): The scale/length of a piece, as well as proportion and distance between significant events, corresponds literally to the duration of the event or proportion of the object being symbolized. This can be used in rendered music (Transfigured World), but is more suitable to reification and NS.
                see: “theoretical possibilities”, “position”, “NS”, “geo-historical location”, “general form”, “reification strategy”

real-time process: A process whose main consideration/designed principle is utility while in the midst of composing - versus a more abstract, planning-based process. “Rather than “description” and pre-development, assume you’re working from something already - then what? - you must bring the Ideas Original process into a real-time orientation - see how they will actually function.” Concerns assume a subtly different priority: time-frame, real-time tone-editing, harmonically and melodically, asking questions while composing, shaping phrase, real-time DRT, searching for benchmarks, recognizing and correcting/redirecting mistakes, the immediate availability of resources, and "retreat/distancing" phases for re-evaluation.

real-world/real-life counterpoint: See “NS inversion”. While the inversion refers to the moment the New Style changes orientations from using ‘real world means to manipulate music’ to using ‘musical means to manipulate the world’ (and the location/domain where it occurs), “real-world counterpoint” refers to the actual procedure of applying musical processes to real-world objects, “using the universe as musical material”.
                The reification approach makes NS ‘bleed’ into reality1 - for example, when I create a “romantic” object, I’m really working with the reification subject itself - an emotion, instances of it in real life, etc, or thinking of a specific place or person, thus  purely musical objects reach their limit - their impotence in achieving a certain precision or specificity of reference. In response, NS breaks the dichotomy between art and life - a ‘turning point’ where NS begins to compose with real life. This is in line with “NS must not be limited in any way” and “in NS’s thought-world, artificial barriers and constraints cannot ultimately stand”.
                “Reification loses the middleman of conversion to music (“poetic conversion” that underlines and distinguishes art from the real world) and extends musical thought far past musical material.” The inversion was already foreshadowed by certain properties of the musical side, primarily description, which opened up the field of musical possibilities to the ‘theoretical’ (see: Theoretical Possibilities I.O. doc), past what can be rendered by physical sound: first past my individual practical constraints, then past anyone’s present abilities (“present” must be always be used as a disclaimer, due to the unforeseen component of the future), then past the barriers of sound, heading toward the NS inversion.”
                see: “NS inversion”, “NS”, “theoretical possibilities”

recalibration (reification): An intermittent revision to NS - to reorient an object to a higher/lower purpose - apply it to a different subject, reify the subject with a more/less important object, resize objects (using volume, length), etc. Conversely, NS can reappropriate existing objects and languages that are wedded to “unworthy” philosophical concepts or possess incongruent associations, and realign them according to NS. Some genre features, for example, can be elevated, such as extended tonality.
                see: “calibration”, "reification"

recovery: A phenomena in transition - rescue or re-grounding after a passage seems: redundant, repetitious, predictable, confusing/wandering, static/lacking energy; the completion of a first phrase of above qualities with a second phrase with decisive/different qualities. There is a significant harmonic component - usually the first phrase is unresolved or static harmonically, “rescued” with a chord change or cadence. It can be deliberately created via “counterintuition”/preparatory theory’s “false sense”, and is mostly employed in transition language and song.
                see: “tonal solutions”, “counterintuition”, “preparatory theory”, “transition language”, “additive phrase”

recurring axiom: An axiom that recurs, as distinguished from a pervasive/holistic axiom, often when the axiom exists in the thematic material and the theme is divided with discursive episodes.
                see: “axiom”, “holistic axiom”, “event”

refraction: “As seen through a different mind”, as reinterpreted through a new mode of thought or language, musical or otherwise - as in variation, counterintuition, transfiguration, appropriation, metaphor. In NS, subject languages refract objects, objects are refracted through “objective modifications”, “artistic strategies” and “variation tasks” in variation sets, and tone-edits refract for various reasons.
                see: “transfiguration”, “variation orientation”, “tone-edit”, “appropriation objects”, “metaphoric insistence”, “genius”

reification: “Bringing into being or turning concrete”, similar to but distinguished from symbolism (esp. symbolism in the “programmatic symphony”/nebulous programmaticism sense). Reification strives for a greater degree of detail, realism and information about the subject - an intent closer to “modeling”, as in ‘making a data model for a previously abstract concept’, which is the term’s normal usage.
                Reification is the single most important principle in the New Style system - NS aims to create a universe of musical symbol, founded on the sincere belief that music can become its subject and vice-versa - musical transubstantiation. Making “unequivocal representation” possible in music, a notoriously vague medium, depends on reification strategies: conceptual uniqueness on many levels, the manipulation of hundreds of equivalencies found between the real-world and music, and the mobilization of the entirety of Ideas Original, all directed by an open-ended prompt list. Fortunately, reification strategies have been augmented tremendously in NS’s “theoretical”/described” form, exposing many radical extensions of musical possibility. NS can also exploit the nebulousness (ambiguity) of music for certain goals vs. subject.
                Reification strategies represent the full spectrum of poetic conversion approaches: literal (proportions/pace/size, formulas, lines of logic, transformations, graphs, symbols etc.) to extremely indirect metaphoric insistence (some “artistic strategies”), both music-side and subject-side strategies, intellectual counterpoint, holistic vs. partial reification, levels of representation “behind” a reification (“deep generation concept”), diversity at form-level (“general form”, “idea types”), lyric/text vs. absolute music’s “stoicism”, and the aforementioned “theoretical possibilities” which include sets, real-time form, geo-historical location, audio-size realism, superimposition, etc. Each subject (if substantial enough) produces a “subject language”, created by combination of language parameters in light of the subject and its body of knowledge. Ideally it innovates: the highest group of reification strategies are the “genius tasks/processes” - discovering/codifying “gateways”, “anthologizing/generalization”, and many others.
                Aside from NS, reification and symbolism offer many benefits:
                                - guard against superficial, context-less music (“library music”, academic music) - vs. a higher threshold for meaning
                                - definitively differentiate musical material vs. arbitrary choice and parity (see: “choice problem”, “justification”)
                                - mobilizes/organizes the ‘infinite choice’ present in Ideas Original, especially post-generalization of all documents
                                - provides fresh external influences
                                - potential to create traits in the music that wouldn’t be apparent in abstract (character, general form, etc.)
                                - subjects present challenges in representation that prompts musical innovation - “experiments in doing justice to a concept”
                                - the music is more intertwined with the world     
                                - the great composer’s “duty to refract the world through his art”
                                - requires the composer to broaden his knowledge (see: POTU(G))
                                - if the symbolic grammar is strong enough, the composer can encode his work done in other disciplines into music.
                The impulse to symbolize external inputs (objects, events, phenomena etc.) in music can be traced back to the “idea domain”, movie scores and “task” in 2005-2006, “programmatic ideas” in 2007, then via plot/drama through 2008, “ostentatious ideas”, the linear var set, nature and Joyce styles in 2009, my new role as “philosopher-in-music”, and NS beginning in 2010. Meanwhile, “real-world counterpoint” inverts the reification principle and presents its own set of possibilities entirely.
                see: “NS”, “theoretical possibilities”, “holistic/partial reification”, “subject language”, “artist strategies”, “recalibration”,
                                “programmatic __”, “real-world cpt”/“NS inversion”, “poetic conversion”

render, rendered: A musical neologism, necessary to distinguish music in “listenable or malleable” form - audio/.wav/.mp3 - vs. written, described, MIDI, etc. “Rendered” is especially meaningful in dialectic with the purely described New Style - vs. personal surrogates and pet projects, which all have rendered/audio components. It also can refer to orchestrating MIDI with virtual instruments and exporting the result to audio format (rendering), exporting results of an audio or video session to its final form.
                see: “rendered NS”, “audio-in-time”, “pet project”, “description”, "TL music"

rendered NS: A neologism coined upon the codification of  “theoretical composition” in 2010: envisioning a completely-described New Style, any conception of the New Style with an audio component would be distinguished as “rendered”.
                see: “render”, “NS”, “theoretical possibilities”, “description”, “audio-in-time”, "TL music"

replacement (process): Replacing a benchmark or existing object with an original or improved object - a strategy in both a creation and revision.
                In “imagination springboard”, one could “replace” recurring objects in a benchmark style with custom ones that have similar function (such as changing “the event that occurs after a half cadence” from a minor-key riff to a m7-vamp, or a different harmonic vocabulary (thus emotional valence) at certain points), thus colonizing an existing style or form into an original one.
                see “placeholder theory”, “audio benchmarking”, “imagination springboard”

resistance (NS): A phenomenon in the New Style where an object “resists” being used in a certain NS process or refuses an NS feature. The resistance would occur because of a specific rationale or justification: a reification could insist on singularity or spatial isolation, refuse a tone-edit or reorchestration because its timbre is a key part of its identity, eschew a variation set because the reification relies on ‘unqualified assertion’ as its approach or because a dissection/analysis of a ‘sacred’ reification would be vulgar, deny codification into a language because of inability to be generalized or applied in other contexts, and resist weak possibilities for combination (those that are “unconvincing, secondary”).
                Importantly, resistance addresses a risk of NS - that combinatorics and tone-edits could be generalized and applied indiscriminately. Also, the myriad justifications for resistance show why prompt-based creation of NS is key, because each reification can potentially use the “tools” of NS in an idiosyncratic way.
                see: “singularity”, “particularization”, “tone-edit”, “semantic combinatorics”, “compositional inertia”

retrospective meaning (Joyce): The way meaning is gleaned by the human mind in instances where traditional semantic structures are modified or broken. It is an affirmation of the possibility of new languages, esp. via new processes, where, although initially foreign, incoherent and unable to be understood by its audience, critics, or composer, meaning can be extrapolated in retrospect due to the mind’s natural inclinations to discover and codify meaning. Meaning is never far away, in other words - for example, a reader tackling Joyce’s Finnegan’s Wake and gradually getting a “feel” for his word juxtapositions and “sound”, or a composer finding coherence, drama or programmaticism within a random experiment (see my “nature specimens”). The more active the imagination, the easier it is to find meaning, connection, analogy, etc. (see: “metaphoric insistence”, “genius”, “levels of obviousness”)
                The counterpart to this is “esotericism”, where a creator/artist designs languages with no expectation of being understood by others, therefore freer to build and explore a greater degree of detail, layer, idiosyncrasy and personal association. Retrospective meaning questions the possibility of esotericism in many instances - though the risk is that in confronting a new work, the audience would invent a meaning that (willfully or ignorantly) contradicts the intent of the work (see “listener requirements”).
                see: “esotericism”, “private language argument”, “metaphoric insistence”, “genius”, “levels of obviousness”, “listener requirements”

retrospective moment (moment theory): A goal within “moment theory”, when music/art unifies with the world around it, then moves into the past where it becomes irretrievable at the physical level. While a current moment is malleable and physical, the preserved moment highlights the  ephemeral quality of life - tinged with the ‘impossibility of the past’, so “retrospective moment” is a particularly desirable and valuable subset of moment-based works. For example, footage or recordings that reflect circumstances that no longer exist - an intersection of culture, place, time and an artist or group of people. Retrospective moment also acknowledges that “existence in the past” of the language (and sense of its initial vitality and relevance) is a significant parameter when experiencing or creating a musical language in the present. NS and my personal/subjective music interact in this domain, aspiring to create aesthetics with “sense of past moment” built in - through “personal historic material” for example.
                see: “moment theory”, “transfiguration”, “artist reaction”, “language design”, “Belle Epoque”

rhth “mirroring”:A process step, where a new motif is made to conform to an existing rhythmic pattern or phrase structure, creating new results within a proven form. The existing patterns (in MIDI or audio), “rhth” and other objects, are “mirrored”. This can be done en-masse using a “development package” - a single import file containing a string of phrase patterns and objects, that the new motif can model systematically within one session. Mirroring is a practical methodology to implement development steps and tonal solutions.
                see: “rhythmic thesis”, “rhth”, “appropriation objects”, “additive phrase”, “rhythmic thesis dispenser”, “developing variation”,                               "development matrix”,

rhth: Rhythmic pattern, usually in the form of MIDI, the realization of the “rhythmic thesis” concept. It can be pitchless for complete neutrality (done with drums or single pitch), or it can integrate pitch and direction (directional rhythmic thesis, DRT). It is a subset of musical material, can be used as stencil/model for phrase structure, can be used literally, modified or in combination, and can be treated as information in its own right.
                see: “rhythmic thesis”, “appropriation objects”, “additive phrase”, “rhythmic thesis dispenser”

rhythmic agility: A property of rhythm defined in the ‘rhythm’ Ideas Original, a goal, especially in the transition and fleeting styles. It refers to the quickness of events, quickness/staccato quality of notes/action, a feeling of “commitment” to the chosen rhythm, precision, staccato comping, and quickness/fleetingness of riffs and melodic parts, basslines and melodies.
                see: “transition language”, “ambiguity theory”, “rhythmic thesis”, rhythmic looseness”, "introverted transfiguration"

rhythmic looseness: A property of rhythm defined in the ‘rhythm’ Ideas Original, developed in ambiguity theory. Includes: freeform orientation, rubato/phrasing, swing juxtaposition, “loose drumming”, loose polyphony, organic/“ugly” drum fills, polymeter etc. It is desirable in its potential to abstract, move beyond simple coherence and realize certain types of character.
                see: “ambiguity theory”, “freeform orientation”, “rhythmic thesis”

rhythmic thesis dispenser: A tool-type, applying to various virtual instruments and multitrack editors that employ tempo-synched MIDI drag-and-drop. They are very important to my combinatoric-based process: the dispenser allows instant auditioning, access and integration of any MIDI object, including pre-composed musical material, development session results, rhth, appropriation objects, chord progressions, etc., but was initially used mainly to “dispense” rhythmic patterns into the composition window.
                see: “leitmotivic juggling”, “additive phrase”, “appropriation objects”, “rhythmic thesis”

rhythmic thesis: The key principle behind ‘rhythm’-based documents/concepts in Ideas Original. Rhythmic thesis acknowledge rhythm/rhythmic pattern as universal in music and a fundamental modifier of expressivity - that one can assert rhythmic pattern/phrase before adding pitch (as a thesis statement is asserted in a paper before its support).
                Rhythmic thesis:
                                - is guided by character desired, organized by tempo and meter
                                - studies the effect of certain rhythms (emotional thesis) + intellectual meanings, symbolism, numerology etc.
                                - is layered: anchored with a tempo/pulse, (also SM), as scaffolding for pattern and ensuring movement forward
                                - serves as “a way to match the rhythmic vitality of the greats” - see “rhythmic agility”, "axiomatic rhythm"
                                - includes rhythmic development
                                - treats rhythm as information, as a vehicle for information
                                - can be improvised with organic play, based on idea
                                - is a way to create detail and subtlety, rhythmic lightness and human qualities (not song phrases)
                                - is a fundamental determinant of order/intelligibility within music (and disorder/unintelligibility)
                                - is essential in text setting – syllable patterns, phrase, etc.
                                - is a counterintuitive way to create music
                                - featured highly in the transition language
                                - is “at the center of timeless melody”
                                - is actualized via a MIDI drag/drop “dispenser” - “instant auditioning, access and integration of any MIDI object”
                see: “rhth”, “rhth ‘mirroring’ “, “rhythmic agility/looseness”, “rhythmic thesis dispenser”, “phrase rightness”, “DRT”

semantic combinatorics: “Combination to create meaning”. In the New Style, musical material is combined to express meaning: first developed and considered in the “pre-NS pool”, a bank of free, unordered, inclusive musical object (musical objects, forces, sets, reifications - “implicit totality”), then taken from the pool to “NS-proper”, where they are configured in a myriad of ways depending on the subject/concept (“constructing” domains, arguments, convergences, juxtapositions, larger sets, while keeping other objects individual or isolated). The entire process is guided by prompts, thus each act of combination/manipulation must be freshly legitimized. Objects can be used/referenced as many times as necessary, just as objects/ideas are in the complex dialogue of real-life (see “idea web”).
                The heuristic progression within NS-proper is from reductionism and isolation (the pool) and relative simplicity (the initial combinations)  
toward complexity (as greater levels of combination, “theoretical possibilities” such as generalization/sets, and tone-editing gain momentum and interaction gains intensity). The combinatoric perspective extends to alternate structures for NS itself (holistic structure) - because all the objects come from a neutral pre-NS pool, NS’s structure is a separate decision
                Combination into meaning is my approach to rendered composition as well: creating pieces of musical material in advance (melodies, melodic-harmonic combinations, chord progressions, patterns, phrases, longer objects, even orchestration sessions) and physically juxtaposing and combining them (in a multi-track editor), using them to expand motifs in development sessions, and combining motifs in developing variation within the actual composition.
                see: “NS”, “pre-NS pool”, “NS-proper”, “combinatorics”, “semantic content”, “reification”, “developing variation”,
                                “complex system”, “idea web”, “theoretical possibilities”

semantic content:
“Meaning”, especially specific meaning, in reification and rendered music, including lyric or word, definite information. It is  often, by analogy, applied to the “grammar” of a musical language, body of theory, or recognizability or definitiveness of musical material - motifs or axioms for example. “Semantic combinatorics” refers to objects from the New Style pool being combined to create new meaning, with the intent of expressing idea, concept and meaning.
                As music can be a ‘nebulous’, ambiguous medium, the “most abstract”, it is a high ideal to create semantics within it. The success of the New Style depends on the feasibility of reification - concrete, definitive symbolism, which is turn depends on the ability to create/codify semantic meaning within the music. “Body of knowledge” is one fix (allowing for semantic content and forms before or around the final object), and description supplements or substitutes semantics for the music entirely (in pure NS). Even more definite meaning is achieved in the NS inversion through “real-world counterpoint”.
                see: “semantic combinatorics”, “reification”, “NS”, “Joycean music”/“mature style”, “NS inversion”.

shadow (NS, qualia):
In NS, there is an implied “shadow” of all other appropriate possibilities behind any aspect of the composition that lacks a definitive rationale for specific choice. This “shadow” is a set of possibilities, and “musical material” becomes a set of “superimpositions” rather than a one-dimensional object - like a deck of cards vs. a single card. The set can be asserted as the musical material or behind a “symbolic representative” chosen arbitrarily, using a subjective rationale etc. Only if an object or moment insists “singularity”/“particularization” will the shadow not be present, physically or in implication.
                A “shadow” is often referred to in I.O. harmonic theory - in veiling, where harmony exists in layered collage, or in chord scaffolding where harmonies of different volumes can be superimposed on one another.
                In the purely theoretical and described New Style, music is “distilled to thought”, thus rendered music is seen as a “shadow” of the musical thought that created it - “the real composition exists in the mind”.
                see: “NS”, “qualia”, “choice problem”, “superimposition”, “description”, “singularity/particularization”, “veiling”

shining character:
A work or object that displays shining character is an exemplary, archetypal, definitive example of that character/aesthetic - a “higher species” of the basic object, a “profound” version of emotion/effect. It is the reason behind much “timeless”/enduring and recognizable music.- “the ultimate differentiator among musical material, and music in general”
 (“Character” here means more than “emotion” - it is synonymous with the very essence of the material, work or moment.)
                Realizing shining character involves: contemplation/research of the desired character, strategizing, open-minded experimentation, seeking out benchmarks and extramusical inspiration to emulate, recruiting Ideas Original documents like barriers/extremes and language objectives, selecting or creating an expressive axiom and ensemble, and work with MIDI objects - all leading to more interesting and potent strategies to realize that character - more unique expressions, more stellar/shining ideas versus other pieces trying for the same character (as within each character, there is a spectrum of quality/brightness of idea, expressiveness of idea). Shining character draws from the effects/emotions attributed to each object/event in “effect-function thesis”.
                Shining character may makes one’s work more extreme, but also more appropriate vs. its goals - shining character gives the composer the right to be more extreme, because the features are justified in the realization of a character. Music with an extremely slow rate of change might take away opportunities for complexity or make transition unapparent, but better to actualize that character with “full commitment” than to add incongruent features that dilute it. Shining character is also holistic, meaning everything from artist worldview, performance, body of knowledge, form/idea type, musical language and philosophy contribute to the expression of the character.
                In NS reification strategy, a potent approach is to closely model the action/character of the subject, even creating a “character language”.
                see: “effect-function thesis (EFT)”, “transfiguration”, “barriers/extremes”, “reification”, “full commitment”, “timeless melody”

sinewy timbre:
A timbre, orchestration objective - heard in recordings from the ‘50s-‘70s (especially highlighted in movie soundtracks and musicals), subjectively described as crisp, sharp, full but not soft (less bass range), vs. the “fullness” of today, which seems “plastic” or “commercial”, often unarticulated or nebulous. It was made a “default” in description (stock modification) because of its universal desirability across objects and languages.
                see: “stock modification”

singularity (NS/reification):
Deeming an object or event in NS a singular occurrence, thus without some indication of pluralism (most commonly shedding the “superimposition/choice alternatives” set, or in more unique cases, the variation set or IP (“I wouldn’t want to dilute the singularity of Octave Tower with a language exposition”). The description must specifically deems the choice or material “definitive”, (“particularizing” the choice), for the heuristic IP and theoretical features to not apply.
                see: “particularization”, “generalization”, “NS”, “act of description”, “choice problem”, “superimposition”

social processes/dynamics:
An investigation in Ideas Original approaching contrapuntal voice interaction as social processes, listing all the basic interactions in terms of action, response, situation, and even each instrument or motif as a character. It represents a way to understand and organize polyphony in the holistic/organic field - this concept influenced both reification (“modeling social interaction” is close to the technical definition of reification) and intellectual counterpoint (viewing dialogue and processes between voices as capable of semantic meaning).
                see: “intellectual counterpoint”, “reification”, “axiom”, “holistic/organic field”

spatial organization:
An option for NS holistic organization or reification, as opposed to the linear time-based form of most music. The need for an alternative to linear arises from instances where a single order of objects, groupings and domains, especially along a “dramatic arc” or supersession arc, doesn’t make sense, such as reification domains, where each reification implicitly references/addresses every other (within the subject domain), or the holistic structure of NS, where linearity would be as foolish as trying to order all the objects and concepts in the real-world in a line, or treat the idea web in that way. Linear variation sets can exist within NS as a “general form” option, but only for specific reasons. Spatial is also the vision of “total integration”, “geo-historical location” and the idea web.
                see: “holistic form (NS)”, “NS”/“NS-proper”, “complex domain”, “linear domain”

specific aesthetic(s):
A document in Ideas Original listing examples of tonal vocabularies realized in many ways, attaining much more specificity than genre, often listing specific people, periods or works. Relevant to described reifications that employ characteristics of historic styles, as well as rendered works like pet project and the autobiographical pieces. It has been expanded into folders, containing relevant benchmarks and MIDI objects for each style. Used for benchmarking and combination, it represents the application of the “specific morphology” concept (its detail emphasis) to the description and exploration of narrowly-defined historic aesthetics.
                see: “aesthetic benchmarking”, “imagination springboard”, “Maj7 transfiguration”, “POM”

specific extension (idea web):
While experimenting with creating an ‘idea web prompt’ page, intended to reflect how the many different perspectives in the world interpret various objects, I initially planned to use “categories” as a starting point - for example, how the web interacts with a noun/object, a person, an event, an idea etc. I soon found that it works much better on specific objects, leading to a second incarnation using general categories as “starting points” that can be adapted to specific object, called the “specific extension”.
                see: “idea web”

specific morphology:
The micro-level traits of a piece of music at the at the physical, detail-level - used currently in reference to its “loop” - the combination of tempo/meter, rhythmic accent, drum pattern, accompaniment/comping pattern(s), bassline, and orchestration objects. It can be used in reference to any style or genre - in MIDI material, there are subfolders for classical SM’s and soul SM’s, for example.
                SM was conceived in reaction to the “approximate music” problem - where I realized that within a genre or idiom, originality at the micro-level depended on the domain of tangible detail I didn’t yet have a name for. This domain was more specific than the level of archetypes, types, styles and axiom that I’d been writing about.
                Axiom modifies and elevates SM, while both SM’s and axioms are ideally realized polyphonically.
                see: “approximate music”, “axiom”, "PMF"

An orchestration concept inspired by Miles Davis’s Bitches Brew, where complex drumming coexists with elemental, layered, and subtle instruments. Whereas the presence of drums can often be negative, as they restrict the climax ceiling, inhibit agility of phrase and freeform orientation, and add emphasis on accent/rhythm that is sometimes simply unnecessary (as in orchestral music), the “spill” envisions the constant presence of crisp but low-volume drums, low-profile enough to allow space/high ceiling for the instrument ensemble - they “spill over” the drums.
                see: “tonal solutions”, “stock modifications”, "nature style"

stock modifications (description):
A list of modifications/improvements I use frequently, referred to under a single term for efficiency when describing an object. I will conceptualize the object and put “+ stock mods” somewhere in the description - their presence ensures a certain standard of quality and uniformity. They are mostly related to rendering/orchestration. Examples include: “semantic content”, “sinewy timbre”, “diversified monochromaticism”, “bends”, “introverted transfiguration”, “wide panning”, “modified with harmony” etc.
                see: “description”, “theoretical possibilities”

strange poetry:
The achievement of poetics by “strange” or counterintuitive means, originally inspired by the individualized and idiosyncratic moments found in madrigals. Generalized, it combines with ambiguity theory and counterintuition to affirm mystery, disorientation and paradox as high artistic strategy. It can be derived from a list (in I.O.) but is best thought of as the result of a unique mind: the holistic strange poetry that comes from a totally new vision. Contrary to many other ‘line’-oriented concepts, strange poetry mostly focuses on moment.
                Strange poetry was resurrected and subsumed into “intellectual counterpoint” in NS.
                see: “poetics”, “intellectual counterpoint”, “counterintuition”, “transfiguration”

stratification (philosophy):
An explicit acknowledgement of stratification within my philosophy, parallel to the disparate approaches and levels in my music/NS. Stratified philosophy is diligent in defining the scope and domain of its assertions, via use of explicit definition and disclaimers, and like NS, each assertion is subject to counterarguments from other perspectives, and implicitly from other “levels of truth”, where a different standard for truth exists. In these levels or definitions of truth, the assertion is held to different standards - for example, practical truth, cultural truth, religious truth, scientific truth, logical or mathematical truth, artistic truth, subjective truth, willful truth, ultimate truth, even future truth. Standards of knowledge range from colloquial to scientific, common to formal.
                Continuing the example, the meta-level describes these truth battles, thus attaining a higher solution - “barrier arguments” for example, where ideologies disagree on the nature of concepts about the extremes/totality of our being/world/universe.
                It makes sense to draw distinctions between approaches that apply to, for example, the many pet and comprehensive philosophy questions that are very subjective and human, and the scientific rigor inherent in other searches for meaning. Those should be distinguished from  “creative philosophy” and the NS inversion, which belong in different category that doesn’t look to describe the world accurately or for utilitarian purpose.
                see: “pet philosophy”, “zero-truth”, “descriptive philosophy”, “creative philosophy”, “barriers”, “philosopher in music”

sub-ensemble (orchestration):
A subset of the total ensemble, orchestral concept. A determinant of weight, also part of a subset-tutti axiom.
NS can greatly expand the scale and range of ensemble sizes through use of sets, generalization, totalization, orders of magnitude, etc.
                see: “ensemble design”, “audio-size realism”, “weight”, “theoretical possibilities”

subject language:
In the New Style, a musical language resulting from/designed from top-down to symbolize a subject or ideology, with all “parameters” of the language chosen in light of the subject. It is either extrapolated from an object/created implicitly during the creation of the object, or created first in order to guide object creation. Each subject elicits diverse “responses” to its challenge of reification, each ideally a “world in itself”, then expanded via the intellectual package’s “language exposition” - a full exposition of the reification’s language by exhibiting it in wider contexts/uses. In purely described NS, the full array of theoretical possibilities and reification strategies  are available to create the object or language, offering many opportunities for innovation and uniqueness in language.
                see: “reification”, “language objectives”, “NS” TOP

subjective genius:
Genius in disciplines that lack objective measures for genius achievement, versus utilitarian, quantifiable genius in other disciplines (“objective genius”). In the arts, “genius” is largely subjective, a matter of aesthetic judgment, whereas one can objectively recognize the truth of a scientific principle or the ubiquity of an invention - this has to do with the nature of the work/output in the subject area.
                These form the two poles of a spectrum, and most genius lies somewhere in the middle - for example, influence on art or subsequent artists is a way to assess aesthetic genius, or the amount of ideas/concepts that didn’t exist before the artist, etc. There is generally more permanent and open-ended conflict between sources and levels of criticism in the arts then there are when the accomplishment has demonstrable utilitarian value. Music does possess certain “facts” that are able ‘prove’ one piece of music to be, for example, more complex or detailed in a certain dimension than another - “amount of layers” or “length”, “percentage of original harmonies” etc., but is usually reductionist in description of a quality like greatness.                   see: “genius”, “objective genius”, “100 problems of music”

subjective subset (NS):
Certain instances of subjectivity manifested in the New Style: “subjective ways to organize the holistic sets of the New Style, chosen by the composer - “picking out” objects of interest from the sets (as symbols/representatives of the set, or arbitrarily)”. This is one rationale for emphasizing a single “symbolic representative” for a set of possibilities. One can also “totalize” subjectivity into a set containing all the objects the composer would approve of (see “qualia”) These subjective-based elements hint at a new style that, despite extending far beyond subjectivity, is ultimately personal.
                see: “personal language”, “qualia”, “reification strategies”, “theoretical possibilities”, “symbolic representative” TOP

The “default” emotion/effect in the New Style, the primary goal of the nature style, an emotion described in effect-function thesis. There are many philosophical definitions, but the New Style sense corresponds most closely to Schopenhauer’s spectrum of sublimity: the top levels describe ‘vast but static nature’, ‘overpowering turbulent nature’, ‘immensity of universe’s extent and duration’, and general “pleasure in seeing an overpowering or vast malignant object of great magnitude, one that could destroy the observer”.
                The nature style was designed to “achieve scale/vastness” parallel to that which I observed in nature, specifically in dialectic against styles with “human” characteristics. “Barriers/extremes” and “sound” Ideas Original documents explore the sublime and elemental in music, H700 uses these as the basis of massive rendered objects, the radicality spectrum ranked those objects using sublimity’s rationale, genius generalizes into “traits of God”, and NS’s “theoretical possibilities” expand music toward the total, infinite and impossible.
                see: “nature style”, “H700”, “barriers/extremes”, “radicality spectrum”, “NS”, “theoretical possibilities”, “audio-size realism”.

superimposition (NS):
A “theoretical possibility” of NS and reification.
                In response to an arbitrary choice, the object is represented as a superimposition of all choices that fit the particular criteria (see: “qualia”), offering a “symbolic representative” with greater prominence or leaving the material as pure set. Thus NS and NS reifications often wield sets of “superimpositions” as musical material rather than one-dimensional objects - like decks of cards vs. a single cards, libraries vs. books.
                see: “NS”, “theoretical possibilities”, “qualia”, “choice problem”, “shadow”, “particularization/singularity”, "symbolic representative"

supersession theory:
The inverse of preparatory theory in Ideas Original, where a work/piece of music justifies its continuation/progression forward by superseding the previous event/object/section. For example, most songs supersede a verse with a broader and more dramatic chorus. It is a body of strategy listing “what-supersedes-what”: including turning points, audio-size realism (dynamic tiers), but also the subversive, poignant and simple, with the potential to supersede the bombastic and complex. The real-life events of Naples 2009 superseded my objectives by arriving at the full description of the NS toward the end of the visit, and in rendered-NS hybrid or total integration, rendered audio can ascend into theoretical description.
                Holistically, the implication is to work backwards from end of long line or work, and shifts the burden of eventfulness from beginning to end. As with preparatory theory and total connectivity, supersession declares that musical events don’t exist for their own sake, but have a larger purpose. Philosophically, supersession represents interplay between stratified levels of complexity, truth, argument, orders of magnitude, human and universal etc.
                see: “turning point”, “preparatory theory”, “Ideas Original”, “transfiguration”, “variation orientation”

symbolic representative (choice):
A feature within the “theoretical NS” solution to choice: At the breaking point over the arbitrary nature of choice, I arrived at a new, more rigorous conception - each audible/physical piece of musical material is a “symbolic representative” of all other choices that would be appropriate in that situation. This one must see the representative superimposed against all possible/applicable choices in a given context, all possible/applicable versions of musical material. This doesn’t just address NS compositions, but all compositions.
                Other options include using no representative but only the set itself, or deeming the choice singularly justified, in which case the choice dilemma doesn’t apply.
                see: “NS”, “theoretical possibilities”, “choice problem”, “superimposition”, “qualia”, “shadow”, “particularization/singularity"

table of the elements:
An analogy and organizing heuristic for timbre and ensemble - seeing single timbres as elements, since updated into an expansion to 2nd-generation chemicals (compounds, substances), and seeing the continuous growth/invention of chemicals from the basic elements as a metaphor for music and a reification analogue. As harmony is emotion/color, timbre is material/color. The orchestration of reification objects gains inspiration from this gateway - rendering a shimmer in glockenspiel could represent diamonds, for example. The most basic element is the pure sine wave, with the power to render “objective” objects. As each element has its own properties, each timbre has its own symbolic associations and character.
                see: “transfiguration ensembles”, “unique timbre”, “reification”

task-based composing:
The context for creation as governing factor. “Task” is very wide-ranging: it can be a purpose, a goal, an impending event/performance, an audience, a text to set, a film to score, a problem to solve. The point is not so much what the task is, but what it can do:
                Composing under a task:
                                - spurs creation: certain (most?) works of art/artistic decisions would have never been made if not prompted by a task
                                - prompts conceptual thought
                                - unifies all other Ideas Original components - otherwise choices becomes arbitrary (“justification”, etc.)
                                                - creates problems to solve, then sets the foundation for the problem solving - a standard to reconcile any decision
                                - sets the norms and archetypes to go with or against (essential for counterintuition, and codification of meaning in general)
                                - grounds the work in reality, imposing parameters from which to work within (creative constraints)
                                                - access to direct, physical fact, with no discrepancy - tuning, voice/inst registers, dynamic limits, breathing limits
                                - suggests tone/complex emotion, as complex emotion is often best described by a situation (programmaticism)
                                - if a profound enough task, may force innovative/radical solutions (principle behind “programmatic ideas” and “reification”)
                                                - may birth original solutions in aspects of music (original moments, axioms, styles), prompted by external input.                                           - guides benchmarking
                                - reflects the reality of artistry and creation - artists do not exist in a void
                                - facilitates moment theory (moment theory is a subset?)
                                - aligns art with the wider world (extramusicality, “semantic content”)
                                - connects the work with other art that treats a similar subject/task = historical dialogue
                Other observations: There is more than one feasible solution for every artistic task/problem, including higher/unique solutions. Task-based composition inspired “What Did It Take?” analyses which looked at the internal and external factors ( that went into making a certain piece of art, including time period/context, the artist’s previous work/history, the ideas/works/movements that were necessary for work to exist (previous works, ideologies, social movements, people). Each prompt in Ideas Original might even be viewed as a type of “task”.
                see: “reification”, “deep generation concept”, “artist reaction”, “explicit form”, “prompt-based architecture”, “higher solution”,                                                     “indirectness”

tension variant (SM):
A specific morphology is usually thought of as a single model for the micro-form pattern or “groove” of a piece. In reality, especially in more complex forms of music, the SM serves as a loose suggestion which is modified in many ways, especially into different dynamic intensities, but also into subtle permutations of all its aspects. In observing some jazz fusion pieces, one possessed “10 basic SM’s, each with 5 levels of tension variation. It is better to think of a morphology as a set including all similar morphologies plus their tension variants.
                see: “specific morphology”, “approximate music”, “introverted transfiguration”, “ambiguity theory”, “pet project”

theoretical possibilities:
Capabilities and features of the New Style in its purely described incarnation. First, the new style is acknowledged as a “collection of capabilities created by Ideas Original” - each I.O. document is an “arm” that opens capabilities within the new style, especially now that the potential of each document has been generalized.
                Possibilities include:                              
                                - limitless/boundlessness: “the New Style must not be limited in any way”, description is unlimited.
                                - a legitimate body of knowledge surrounding theoretical music:          
                                - the distinction between logical extensions and the imaginary/impossible, ability to refer to the impossible or nonexistent
                                - totalization and generalization as perfunctory - not the main act, but it allows subsequent action.
                                - ‘acts of description” will take on the flavor/significance of musical events within music - the manner/strategy of description.
                                                depth, strategies and mediums of description
                                - anthological/generalization sets, “exhaustive anthology” (within I.O. - no context-less generalization)
                                - “fullness” of essential aspects, “due diligence”: “perpetual” or “infinite” development & transformation
                                - beyond reality/imagination - the need to be accurate or real can be questioned - break the constraints of the world
                                - non-physical: denying “existence” as necessary (i.e. audio)
                                                (though not always audible, it is about sound and music, conceptualized using knowledge of sound and music)
                                - future extension: extension of sets into future
                                - describing lack of music, and different reasons for it
                                - differentiated silence
                                - metaphor-based description, such as “musical prose”
                                - polyphonic simultaneity - and simultaneous audibility, esp. of different dynamics or sizes
                                - breaking the idea of linear time in music - the ability to hear “all motifs” in the space of one (superimposition)
                                - breaking the  “choice problem”:  
                                                “optimum/best decision” theory as far as musical material, in retrospect if given “necessary time”
                                                multiplicity layering/superimposition/“shadows”/multiplicity via morph/shape-shifting
                                                qualia/criteria sets - doesn’t have to choose specific representations of subject (“qualia”)
                                                necessary time: allows you to hypothesize on the effect of time (“necessary time”) on any process or theory
                                - expanded ability to do justice to the most profound programmatic concepts:
                                - the option to modify sound itself, the way we hear, and time itself in order to coherently reify a certain idea
                                - true audio-size realism scale/orders of magnitude, simultaneously audible - human vs. universal scale (and contradictions)                                             - “exclusive audibility” within layering
                                - tiered scales = millions of different scales? gradations from smaller than Planck to larger…
                                - listening requirements:
                                - understating/ignoring/negating any music aspects deemed inessential to the object’s meaning/objective:
                                                so if melody and harmonic vocab aren’t central to the language, do away with them
                                                      (breaks 100 probs, fixes the “total connectivity and symbolism may still end up sounding normal” problem)
                                - pragmatic:
                                                no limit on the amount of works you can describe
                                                solves limitations based on arbitrary physical situation of the artist: description denies any “subset” of resources
                                                                (you necessarily have all resources available to you)
                                - automatic developing variation processes
                                - meta-orientation, about music, about composition and its processes/problems
                                - ‘position’ + theoretical = historical time and geographical location of a musical object,     to universal history and infinity
                                                famous/significant moments in time (past and future)
                                - simultaneous multiple locations (see “pre-NS pool”, multiplicity)
                                - “real time” reification
                                - resistance: strength of resistance of object to combination/cross-pollination, variation, etc., singularity insistence
                                - spatial isolation
                                - tone-editing: types/flavors of blanket edits decide what changes, “what goes and what stays” - like high water on land forms
                                                (for instance, a “profound tone-edit” that sweeps away all trivial, even humor)
                                - stock modifications - “default” traits and implicit implementation of them
                                - intellectual package features (see: “intellectual package”/IP), deep generation superimposition, etc.
                                + future additions
                see: “NS”, “description” and any of the above terms, “100 problems of music”, “genius”, “gateway theory”

thought language:
The hypothesis that new ways of thinking create new languages and works, and thought-language invention as goal. The implication is that one must first cultivate new thought processes before they attain originality, because thought precedes action, speech, writing and composition. The inspiration for this is (again) James Joyce, and trying to explain his writing in Ulysses and specifically Finnegan’s Wake, imagining if that style was actually his native way of thinking. Along those lines, how can someone use the same/existing language to speak new thoughts?
                For NS, inventing thought languages and gateways are among the highest reification goals, found in the “genius tasks” subset of reification strategies. In the idea web, there are fewer objects than ways to think about those objects - the level of objects, objective principles and observations vs. the level of people’s ideas about them - “the second is potentially richer”.
                see: “esotericism”, “retrospective meaning”, ”genius”, “genius process/tasks”, “gateway theory”

Referring to different “threads” in a work - tracing the line of a certain orientation through a work, or creating it. Many threads are possible and coexist - as examples, the “philosophical subtext of a work”, the analysis of a the use and presence of a certain Ideas Original concept through a work (total connectivity or supersession), the emotional/sensual aspect of the piece, the dramatic argument, the long-line, the textual line (in lyric), interaction/correspondence with an extramusical model (reification, programmaticism, text, plot/musical drama), developmental logic, psychological aspects, the metaphoric, technical execution etc. All these are ‘threads’ able to be followed and analyzed, with different types of listeners/audience each following their favorite, or the one most apparent to them.
                Threads imply reconciliation and simultaneity of many orientations often referred to polemically as if they were mutually exclusive.
Optimization of one thread, however, may sacrifice the vitality of another.
                In 2009, an early H700 object described a “dream/surrealism” thread interacting with an “intellectual/truth content” side. This simultaneity would be literalized in the expanded pan field and more so through “theoretical possibilities”.
                see: “NS”, “theoretical possibilities”, “superimposition”, “H700”, “mature style”, “Joycean music”, “100 problems of music”

timeless melody:
One of the main objectives of Ideas Original, especially in its earlier normative pages, such as “melody ideas”. It has come to mean “iconic musical material”, and “task-based composing”, “justification”, “EFT”, “shining character” and “programmatic description” were all hypothesized in its wake. Justification states that the ability tangibly explain the greatness of a piece of musical material implies that one can reliably create greatness in music through the same approaches. The emphasis has often been on phrasing and melodic material, but shining character reveals that timelessness is often a function of character actualization and recognizability as much as phrasing or melody itself. Reification (esp. in rendered “programmatic” version) aims to symbolize, even “become” its subject, potentially resulting in uniquely iconic music.
                see: “justification”, “Ideas Original”, “reification”, “shining character”, “EFT”, “PMF, programmatic micro-form”

TL music:
The neologism for rendered music, created after “theoretical possibilities”. Music in audio lacks access to these possibilities, as they are exclusively possible through description.
                see: “theoretical possibilities”, “rendered”, “NS”

tonal solutions:
A pragmatic approach to composition, by listing problem/task and associated solutions. After the first printout of Ideas Original, I designated “transition as the #1 problem in Ideas Original, because of all the material, options and ideas created”, and tonal solutions was the practical reaction - discover all viable solutions in a particular compositional situation, ideally meaningful and justified. Options are both invented and gleaned from the past.
                It carries the same ‘transfiguring’ impulse as the other I.O. sections, aiming for higher or unique solutions, in “transfiguration strategies” and “higher solution” subcategories. Like “transfiguration” and “development”, the entirety of Ideas Original can be said to suggest solutions to composition’s problems, but tonal solutions is more explicit and direct, in format and orientation. Problem context is the same approach applied to higher aesthetic and philosophical problems, while “100 problems of music” is the anthological list and exploration of problems in music.
                Transition language and intellectual counterpoint are the two main stylistic realizations of tonal solutions, as they display explicit problem solving in clearly articulated situations.
                see: “problem context”, “transition language”, “loop breaking”, “supersession”, “100 problems of music”, “rhth/rhythmic thesis”
                                “higher solution”, “intellectual counterpoint”

tone-edit (NS):
“Editing tone” - first employed as a pedestrian revision step, where incongruities in tone (and other areas of the work) were ironed out. This image of “sweeping over a composition to revise it for a specific goal” grew in significance until it was described this way in NS -
                “The concept/image of tone-editing the entirety of NS-proper into diversified monochromatic ensembles as abstracted parallel universes: like everything overlaid w/ frost, gilded w/ gold, transparent, etc. (see objective modifications, other refractions), but, since tone-editing should always be ideological, this relationship is more complex - “under” the monochrome, the ideology of the tone-edit affects each domain and its objects differently, based on the philosophical implications of the force (i.e. death > monochrome in____ > the death force acting in diverse ways but “draped” in diversified monochrome). A “tone-edit” is like a single ideology “smoothing” disparate objects of the world through providing a coherent explanation, or like art representing the world through a unified aesthetic.”
                Tone edits have three basic uses:
                                type 1: normal use, like rendered revision - within reification/object to unify the tone of sectional and micro-events
                                type 2: tools for reifications  to wield on external matter, including other NS objects
                                type 3: module and domain blankets, to create a subtler kind of disparateness in reifications/poetic conversion strategies
                The use in type 3 addressed the problem of reifications being too garishly different in their approaches to a subject - tone-editing could be employed lightly to tone-down the most disparate qualities or unify certain aspects between symbols, resulting in a “domain blanket”, an holistic but subtle group-wide aesthetic. For example, regardless of all the ways to represent death (including celebration in some cases), the “death domain” blanket could cast a shadow over all its reifications.
                Another instance is the “iconoclast tone-edit” - where the artist brings an objective totality under subjective control (see: “qualia”)
                An object can resist a tone-edit as well - if for instance, the edit negates an essential quality within it, or it wants to maintain autonomy.
                see: “NS”, “theoretical possibilities”, “domain blanket”, “resistance”, “refraction”, “transfigured ensemble”, “recalibration”

total connectivity:
Total connectivity states that any idea/element within the context of the whole composition, affects the whole, must be accountable to the whole, and can only be fully understood in light of the whole. This compositional “butterfly effect” births sub-ideas like logic, connectedness, inevitability, accountability, proportion, balance, acknowledgement, micro/macrocosm, tension/resolution, “turning point” and others. It is the “thinking composition”, ethical and intellectual, able, ideally to explain the meaning of every note - realized in 2012’s “intellectual counterpoint”. Connectivity encourages the development of music as a meaningful, tangible language, and treating it/using it as such.
                The principle is surprisingly inclusive - “everything must be possible” in composition, in so far as it is a logical consequence of events before or is dealt with/reconciled afterwards.
                NS-proper’s combinatorial domain evolves toward a complex system - interconnected, reacting, where any idea in it affects the whole, (even perhaps disproportionately). This is also represented in the idea web. Connectivity’s ethical streak - “accountability”, is represented in “theoretical possibilities” rigorous approach toward choice and the risk of the arbitrary, “generalization”, the goal of “unequivocal representation” in reification, justification, and intellectual counterpoint’s role as ‘primary axiom’ (alongside collage).
                see: “intellectual counterpoint”, “semantic content”, “idea web”, “NS”, “theoretical possibilities”, “transition language”

total integration:
The integration and interplay between many different projects into a multimedia whole: The New Style, autobiographical pieces, Chronicles, etc. It is a reflection of the natural relatedness of these projects: the events of my visit to Naples 2009-2010 is the ‘creation myth’ of the New Style and has the full description of the New Style as its finale. The New Style features autobiographical events as the “personal language” at its core. Chronicles is the real-life record of the creation and development of Ideas Original and the New Style in prose, while Ideas Original and Aesthetics is an exposition of the concepts created during the period. NS can cite POTU(G). Rendered objects will coexist with description.
                Total integration is a ‘new path’, a ‘thought domain’, genius/Joyce taken to interdisciplinary, multimedia implication. There will also be parallel/alternate versions of NS and other objects, many presentation possibilities (spatial, linear, graphic, video, menu, text, etc.), the autobio works will reference/link to Chronicles and full I.O./NS documents as well as video and audio, description can “transform” into audio and vice-versa via text/audio link, embeds can be “folded into” moments from Naples 2009 to be explored, and one can “enter” at different points - from NS, from I.O., from real-life events, etc. - this allows purity in segmentation, but also full cross-pollination/reference. Any ‘idea form’ is eligible for use. The NS inversion can be realized through pictorial and video collage.
                see: “NS”, “autobiographical works”, “Chronicles”, “Aesthetics”, “POTU(G)”, “NS inversion”, “idea web”, “personal surrogates”

tower, wedge:
A prominent, pioneering H700 object, which then birthed modified versions. Held or particulate notes at progressively higher (or lower) pitch aggregate, forming a wedge shape, and often ending with a singular event. The “Octave Tower” aggregates chromatically from C0 to C7 over 14 minutes, forming a dense and imposing “tower” and culminating in a single suspended C7 tone. Other H700 uses include a reification of world population growth.
                see: “H700”, "nature style", “radicality spectrum”, “axiom”, “reification”

trailing hook:
Instance of a “hook”/primary motif/title placed at the end of chorus or section, identified in I.O. song-form analysis - versus traditional Broadway song form where the hook is placed at the beginning. Is an option in several places in tonal solutions.
                see: “notch hook”, “tonal solutions”

notch hook:
Rhythmically accented, recognizable hook, sometimes syncopated - often placed at the end of choruses or sections in song.
                see: “axiom: notching”, “tonal solutions”, “trailing hook”

traits of God (genius):
The generalization/totalization of genius, an addition to genius study during the generalization period of all Ideas Original documents in 2011. Specifically refers to a section where I take a list of the “traits of God” and secularize them into genius objectives. These traits are not implied to be possible in reality 1, but are part of “due diligence” exposition of all genius tasks, and stand as the “highest goals” of reification in the New Style.
                see: “genius”, “genius tasks/process”, “theoretical possibilities”, “generalized I.O.”, “generalization”, “first man”
                                “hypothetical innovations”

transfiguration ensembles:
Transfiguration when applied to orchestration - a “recognizable instrumental aesthetic” with an external rationale - either monochromatic, having some perceived unity, is historically referential, or plural/anthological. Through “table of the elements” it is taken farther: pure sine waves are the basic/neutral material, then monochromatic ensembles represent elements, progressing to compounds and eventually toward the total set. These ensembles are somewhat archetypal, while “unique timbre” takes the opposite track - transfiguration through particularization/individuality, and "diversified monchromaticism" envisions shades within a unifieid ensemble.
                see: “transfiguration”, “introverted transfiguration”, “monochromatic ensembles”, “diversified monochromaticism”

transfiguration, ‘Maj7’:
Prescriptions for transfiguring an extended harmonic language (referred to as “major 7”, but including the general pre-dissonant/impressionist/jazz vocab up to 13ths), preserving its prized emotional quality while going past its pervasive use in pop music into higher contexts. This requires divorce/disassociation from past stereotypes (as “sweet”, “sentimental”, “pop”, “old-fashioned”), then exacting strategies: general transfiguration strategies, counterpoint, axiom, collage and ultimately veiling. Where many strategies involve enveloping the extended vocabulary within a “dissonant frame” where only fleeting “flashes” would remain, veiling (layering through collage) allows an object of entirely extended vocabulary to coexist with dissonant objects, creating a new object with both features simultaneously audible (“veiled” by dissonant layers).
                see: “transfiguration”, “veiling”, “pan-field”, “harmonic vocabulary”

The concept and associated strategies for elevating material and works toward profundity and genius. Originally conceived jointly with counterintuition as the “transfigured counterintuitive” to rescue cliché: “to resurrect sincerity from previous/preexisting genres/styles/ideas, one must reinterpret with a unforeseen and higher intent”. Over time, this drive toward genius overtook the entirety of Ideas Original, now the whole of I.O. can be said to foster transfiguration - culminating in the genius documents and NS.
                In counterintuition, transfiguration can rescue any quality of material through “examination/“due process”/masterful treatment through understanding”, bringing it into a profound domain. Also, “developing the underdeveloped”, ambiguity and strange poetry strategies (bringing out “unique” beauty), “axiomatic __”, treating a subject with high seriousness (“classical intent”),  reinterpretation (refraction), and including material in a larger/higher context. Orchestration plays a significant role, through transfiguration ensembles and introverted transfiguration. Certain orientations in transfig theory are rarely seen in genre, and if used together, would transcend genre’s format limits.
Variation set is the most direct exhibition of the transfiguring potential of genius - in Beethoven’s Diabelli Variations, he elevates common, banal material to its highest ends through a myriad of approaches - virtuosity, solemnity, dissonance, fugue, parody, counterintuition, breadth of emotion, and ultimately through his own radical idiom.
                NS is the “profound domain” due to its transubstantiation/reification principle - music is “forced” to represent profound concepts, and if Ideas Original is understood as a process that every piece of material included in NS must be subject to/derived from, transfiguration is implicit.
“Theoretical possibilities” and almost all NS features (IP constituents) are “transfiguration strategies.
                see: “Ideas Original”, “counterintuition”, “refraction”, “genius”, “placeholder theory”, “aesthetic benchmarking”, “axiom”
                “introverted transfiguration”, “transfiguration ensembles”.

transition language:
The meaning, joy and difficulty of transition, long-line, functionality rather than assertion, etc. - and the meaning/semantics present in phrase, articulation, event and transition. Seen in the “humanist” lineage of composition - Classicism, Beethoven, Sondheim, as well as some genre, song and popular music. The transition language aims for an exalted usage of the possibilities inherent in highly articulated, eventful music - an actualization of the normative rendered music side of Ideas Original: tonal solutions, “axiomatic __”, development, phrase, “transfiguration”, counterintuition, form/supersession/preparatory theory, rhythmic thesis and others.
                In the “radicality spectrum” it is referred to as “disparate-dramatic”, and is typically associated with humanity, though “intellectual counterpoint” is a similar (even overlapping) idiom that can reify anything through its capabilities. The spectrum also juxtaposes it with the nature style, though they can be overlapped while maintaining individual intelligibility via collage + the expanded pan-field.
                see: “Ideas Original”, “intellectual counterpoint”, “language objectives”, “tonal solutions”

turning point:
In “total connectivity”, it is defined as “the point where the composition can no longer act as it did before”, and the event/moment that causes everything afterwards to proceed differently.
                Ideas Original’s “Barriers” document described how music acts differently at different extremes and scales, while counterintuition and supersession prescribe them, and total connectivity deals with the implications of previous events that ‘cause’/necessitate turning points. Drama has the plot twist, and humor is predicated on surprise, thus humor refractions often “turn” unexpectedly, even to non-sequitur. Variation sets turn at each new variation. NS aims for an interactive dialogue where objects (thus ideas) and sometimes moments within individual reifications supersede and contradict each other, creating “turning points”. Several unique structure-level shifts have already been described, the largest of which is the “NS inversion”, where the system enters a “mirror world” that begins using musical means to manipulate the real world, the opposite of the previous paradigm, using ‘real world means to manipulate music’. Complex systems have turning points in “emergent phenomena”, acting differently at subsequent levels, while generally, NS dictates that “artificial barriers and constraints cannot ultimately stand”.
                Philosophically, a turning point often represents the Socratic illusiveness of truth and wisdom, where simple explanations are undercut by anomalies and even changes in basic assumptions.
                see: “total connectivity”, “counterintuition”, “humor context”, “supersession”, “event”, “variation orientation”, “transfiguration”

unique timbre, singular timbre:
An orchestration concept and objective - to “deny reductionism by only referring to specific or singular timbres…not “instrument types, etc.”. It acknowledges the individuality possible within timbre, and within rendered music in general. In description, one can refer to specific audio benchmarks. One way to achieve “diversified monochromaticism” is to collage all the timbres possible within an instrument type.             
                see: “introverted transfiguration”, “diversified monochromaticism”, “irreducible complexity”, “vocal surrogate”

universal genius:
The generalization of all parameters associated with genius, resulting in the description of a hypothetical universal-level genius, also the implications of such. Created in the generalization phase of I.O.
                see: “traits of God”, “genius”, “genius tasks/processes”.

universal subject (NS):
Deprecated term for “reification subject“ in the New Style. The term is significant in that it emphasizes the universality and importance of the subject - that it be substantial enough (with a body of knowledge around it and multiple approaches/perspectives concerning it), to warrant a discourse among multiple reifications and creation of subject languages. This need has been diffused by the more differentiated prompt-based process of “semantic combinatorics”
                see: “reification”, “NS”, “subject language”, “poetic conversion”, “semantic combinatorics”

variation orientation:
Variation sets and variation form have a huge influence on the New Style and most other styles I have created.
Variation form is an ideal for many reasons: like variation form, Ideas Original is primarily about exposing possibilities, development and transformation of material into greatness. Variation sets have more potential for explicit semantic meaning than any other form of non-lyric music (through dialogue with the original material and between variations). It accommodates extremely diverse approaches: each variation has the ability to assert (like most works) but also to question, subvert or transcend, contradict, transfigure - through the fact that variations are both related but much more autonomous than ‘sections’ in other forms. It allows the composer to: contextualize single objects by placing them next to others (a complex object gains significance in dialectic with a simple one), display more diversity without weakening the consistency of a concept (“full commitment”),  and codify entire new languages by the way they interact and differ from the known subject (the principle of the Rosetta Stone). Variation is the optimum arena to display genius and compare modes of thought.
                Beethoven’s “Diabelli variations” is the major source for my realization of the exalted potential of the form, but also the sheer invention and juxtaposition of James Joyce (see: “Joycean music”, “mature style”)
                The New Style originally began as a linear variation set based on a subject, and it retains this orientation on a much larger level - the listener is in the midst of a cosmic argument on every major issue, reflecting a philosophical world of complexity and flux - the idea web, stratified truth and coexisting, diverse aesthetic languages. Each musically symbolic object has a variation section in its “intellectual package” - providing balance, differing perspectives, counterarguments, and support.
                The variation approach is generalized through “variation tasks” - predetermined prompts that each suggest a different orientation towards the variation subject.
                see: “variation tasks”, “NS”, “intellectual package”, “transfiguration”, “NS”, “pet philosophy”, “mature style”, “modular juxtaposition”
                                “humor context”, “semantic combinatorics”

variation tasks:
Predetermined, often mandatory prescriptions/orientations (“tasks”) for varying the initial material in variation form, designed to make systematic (to a greater certain degree) the variation process of an New Style object by referring to a pre-made list of “approaches”, “strategies” or “perspectives”. For example, a ‘humor-variation’ category with “parody” as an option under it, or the “objective modifications” list, which is an almost anthological list of transformations. In generalization, it amounts to “all possible or applicable approaches”.
                see: “variation orientation”, “intellectual package”, “NS”, “development matrix”

A harmonic paradigm in both the New Style and rendered music, based on a “3 dimensional” conception of harmony - not only linear juxtaposition of chord types, but also simultaneous layering at various volume levels - as possible in collage, and pan-field interplay - speaker arrays past a conventional stereo field, inspired by the way we experience, process and assimilate disparate sounds in the real-world - from different sources and distances. I first observed this in one of the “nature style specimens” (“Strings Swell”), where I was still able to discern the emotional effect of extended harmony in the original object, but behind a “veil” of foreground dissonance.
                Veiling is a harmonic byproduct of the layering of autonomous objects: the “semantic combinatorics” in the New Style - one plays objects simultaneously to both create the new object and maintaining the individual meaning the constituent objects. Collage is the main axiom employed in the New Style (along with intellectual counterpoint). Collage can facilitate, for example, parallel versions of a composition or moment (think superimposition/labyrinth/fractal embedding), or more conventionally, an intellectual counterpoint object “etching” meaning and detail into a sonorist drone or held chord. A reification could use single tonality (from single notes/octaves/chords arising from unified purpose) to represent “equilibrium”, veiling to represent “complexity”, and dissonance (from gray chromaticism to white noise, arising from disparate polyphony) to represent “chaos”.
                The results run the full spectrum from full cohesion, subtle interplay, “shadow dissonances” behind consonance, many shades of light and dark dissonance, toward complete incongruity. Aesthetically, it unequivocally represents subtlety and ambiguity theory in harmony, as it introduces distance, object and volume factors into harmonic analysis, “denying simple chord analysis and identification”.                             
                Practically, it has offered solutions for several problems: veiling fixes the fin-de-siecle/Salome vs. “pop” harmony dichotomy, allowing integration of extended harmony and dissonance, and the coexistence of harmonic languages with different approaches.               
                see: “collage”, “pan field”, “ambiguity theory”, “complex system”, “harmonic vocabulary”, “intellectual cpt”

vocal surrogate: In melody (especially lead melody), when instrumental music needs to compensate for the absence of a vocalist (the most expressive instrument in music), it must find a surrogate instrument with a similarly high expressive quality - even the ability to closely mimic the features of a voice (inflection, formant, vibrato, etc.). This is especially important in the bend/human language. In absence of a consistent vocalist, and also to retain the autonomy and balance between voices in instrumental/“absolute” music, I have been on a never-ending search for instruments that can attain the expressive potential of the human voice, esp. certain voices - often famous ones - that stand as singularities among voices.
                see: “bend language”, “expressive mods”, “stock mods”

weight (dynamics):
A concept of dynamics in music - noting the “weight” inherent in different dynamics (a combination of loudness, pitch and orchestral thickness). Juxtaposed dynamic phrases and sections are seen in Classicism and the transition language, are the basis of “climax/lull”, the ‘climax ceiling’/audio-size realism, creating “build”, and are essential to transition, offering strong answers to many problems in “tonal solutions”.
In tonal solutions, “relative weight/subservience” manipulates tension (important in maintaining long-line) and breaks stalemates in power relationships between phrases of equal dynamics by making one phrase subservient to the other.
                see: “tonal solutions”, “audio-size realism”, "loop breaking"

By act of individual will, done by composer. The implication here is that the composer must exert force of will to attain clarity of choice in an ambiguous situation.
                see: “act of description”, “description”, “metaphoric insistence”, “genius”, “artist reaction”

A philosophical concept, describing “reality 1” as fact and viewing human survival as alignment with “fact”. The vast majority of disciplines and professions exist for a physical utility, thus “yielding” to the constraints of life, acting within them for a practical purpose. This is juxtaposed with other perspectives, such as escapism, denial and willful assertion, but also the more positively-viewed approaches of idealism, artistry, “creative philosophy”, and fantasy, which all carry the risks of being unaligned with reality at its most tangible level - namely loss of utility, functionality, feasibility and/or ability to survive in the “real-world”.
                It is juxtaposed against/compared with the artistic domain in my philosophy - especially concerned with the differences in perspective, their autonomy or relatedness, their interaction, and their legitimacy.
                see: “reality 1” “negative absolutes”, “BPC”,  “creative philosophy”

zero-truth (philosophy):
A philosophical concept via Socrates: “questioning is the only defensible method of teaching” - the pursuance of wisdom but not attaining it, as NS is the pursuance of genius but not attaining it. The New Style’s philosophical system is based on this ‘Socratic’ doubt or skepticism - that there are stratified levels of truth, harder to justify/verify at each successive level. Examples: practical truth, cultural truth, religious truth, scientific truth, logical or mathematical truth, artistic truth, subjective truth, willful truth, ultimate truth or lack thereof. Each  approaches truth differently and uses different means to confirm truth. NS reifications approach subjects differently, with the power to subvert, question, analyze, and parody the subject and other objects, which is mirrored at the group and holistic level - a dialogue of meaning.
                I also make an important distinction between “descriptive philosophy” (most philosophy, historically) that aims to discover “truth” and the nature of reality in the world, and “creative philosophy”, which aims to create new means of thought and aesthetics irrespective of correspondence to reality.
                see: “pet philosophy”, “NS”, “philosopher in music”, “creative philosophy”, “descriptive philosophy”, “willful”